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Turkey - REFERENCE




Turkey - Appendix. Tables

Turkey

Table 1. Metric Conversion Coefficients and Factors

When you know Multiply by To find
     
Millimeters 0.04 inches
Centimeters 0.39 inches
Meters 3.3 feet
Kilometers 0.62 miles
Hectares 2.47 acres
Square kilometers 0.39 square miles
Cubic meters 35.3 cubic feet
Liters 0.26 gallons
Kilograms 2.2 pounds
Metric tons 0.98 long tons
  1.1 short tons
  2,204.0 pounds
Degrees Celsius (Centigrade) 1.8 and add 32 degrees Fahrenheit

Table 2. The House of Osman: Sultans of the Ottoman Empire, 1281-1922

Name Lineage Reigned
Osman I Son of the gazi Ertugrul 1281-1324
Orhan Son of Osman 1324-60
Murad I Son of Orhan 1360-89
Bayezid I2 Son of Murad I 1389-1402
Süleyman Son of Bayezid I 1402-11
Musa2 Son of Bayezid I 1411-13
Mehmet I2 Son of Bayezid I 1413-21
Murad II Son of Mehmet I 1421-44, 1446-51
Mehmet II Son of Murad II 1444-46, 1451-81
Bayezid II Son of Mehmet II 1481-1512
Selim I Son of Bayezid II 1512-20
Süleyman I Son of Selim I 1520-66
Selim II Son of Süleyman I 1566-74
Murad III Son of Selim II 1574-95
Mehmet III Son of Murad III 1595-1603
Ahmet I Son of Mehmet III 1603-17
Mustafa I Son of Ahmet I 1617-18
Osman II Son of Ahmet I 1618-22
Mustafa I Son of Ahmet I 1622-23
Murad IV Nephew of Mustafa I 1623-40
Ibrahim Brother of Murad IV 1640-48
Mehmet IV Son of Ibrahim 1648-87
Süleyman II Son of Ibrahim 1687-91
Ahmet II Son of Ibrahim 1691-95
Mustafa II Son of Mehmet IV 1695-1703
Ahmet III Son of Mehmet IV 1703-30
Mahmud I Son of Mustafa II 1730-54
Osman III Son of Mustafa II 1754-57
Mustafa III Son of Ahmet III 1757-74
Abdül Hamid I Brother of Mustafa III 1774-89
Selim III Nephew of Abdül Hamid I 1789-1807
Mustafa IV Cousin of Selim III 1807-08
Mahmud II Brother of Mustafa IV 1808-39
Abdülmecid I Son of Mahmud II 1839-61
Abdülaziz Son of Mahmud II 1861-76
Murad V Son of Abdülmecid I 1876
Abdül Hamid II Son of Abdülmecid I 1876-1909
Mehmet V Son of Abdülmecid I 1909-18
Mehmet VI Son of Abdülmecid I 1918-22

Table 3. Presidents and Prime Ministers, 1920-95

President Prime Minister Period in Office
  Atatürk May 1920-January 1921
  Fevzi Çakmak1 January 1921-July 1922
  Rauf Orbay1 July 1922-August 1923
  Fethi Okyar1 August-October 1923
Atatürk (1923-38) Ismet Inönü (CHP) November 1923-November 1924
  Fethi Okyar (Progressive Republican Party) November 1924-March 1925
  Ismet Inönü (CHP) March 1925-October 1937
Ismet Inönü (1938-50) Celal Bayar (CHP) October 1937-January 1939
  Refik Saydam (CHP) January 1939-July 1942
  Sükrü Saraçoglu (CHP) July 1942-August 1946
  Recep Peker (CHP) August 1946-September 1947
  Hasan Saka (CHP) September 1947-January 1949
  Semsettin Günaltay (CHP) January 1949-May 1950
Celal Bayar (1950-60) Adnan Menderes (DP) May 1950-May 1960
Cemal Gürsel (1960-66) Cemal Gürsel May 1960-November 1961
  Ismet Inönü (CHP) November 1961-February 1965
  Suat Hayri Ürgüplü (Independent) February-October 1965
  Süleyman Demirel (AP) October 1965-March 1971
Cevdet Sunay (1966-73) Nihat Erim (Independent) March 1971-April 1972
  Ferit Melen (NRP) April 1972
  Suat Hayri Ürgüplü (Independent) April-May 1972
  Ferit Melen (NRP) May 1972-April 1973
  Naim Talu (Independent) April 1973-January 1974
Fahri Korutürk (1973-80) Bülent Ecevit (CHP) January-November 1974
  Sadi Irmak (Independent) November 1974-March 1975
  Süleyman Demirel (AP) March 1975-January 1978
  Bülent Ecevit (CHP) January 1978-October 1979
  Süleyman Demirel (AP) October 1979-September 1980
Kenan Evren (1980-89) Bülent Ulusu (appointed) September 1980-December 1983
  Turgut Özal (ANAP) December 1983-October 1989
  Ali Bozer 6 (ANAP) October-November 1989
Turgut Özal (1989-93) Yildirim Akbulut (ANAP) November 1989-June 1991
  Mesut Yilmaz (ANAP) June-November 1991
  Süleyman Demirel (DYP) November 1991-May 1993
  Erdal Inönü May-June 1993
Süleyman Demirel 1993- Tansu Çiller (DYP) June 1993-

Table 4. Population by Age-Group, 1980, 1990, and 2000 (in percentages)

Age-Group 1980 1990 2000
0-14 39.2 34.8 31.8
15-64 56.1 61.2 62.6
Over 65 4.7 4.2 5.6
TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100.0

Source: Based on information from The Dorling Kindersley World Reference Atlas, New York, 1994, 546

Table 5. Economically Active Population by Sector, Selected Years, 1970-93 (in thousands of workers over age fifteen)

Sector 1970 1980 1990 1993
Agriculture, fishing, and forestry 8,237 8,353 8,723 8,397
Construction 665 895 973 1,141
Manufacturing 1,343 2,057 2,553 2,693
Mining 156 188 202 131
Trade and hotels 886 1,429 2,093 2,338
Transportation and communications 417 612 808 898
Other, including services 1,330 2,168 3,012 3,104
Total civilian employment 13,034 15,702 18,364 18,702
Unemployment 871 1,376 1,590 1,530
Unemployment rate (in percentages) 6.3 8.1 8.0 7.6
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE 13,905 17,078 19,954 20,232

Source: Based on information from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD Economic Surveys: Turkey, 1995, Paris, 1995, 9.

Table 6. Summary of Consolidated Budget, 1988-93 (in billions of Turkish lira)

  1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993
Revenues            
Tax revenues 14,232 25,550 45,399 78,643 141,602 264,273
Non-tax revenues 3,355 5,819 11,174 18,104 32,622 87,119
Total revenues 17,587 31,369 56,573 96,747 174,224 351,392
Expenditures            
Current expenditures 7,460 16,660 33,452 60,403 114,221 204,829
Investments 3,564 5,818 10,055 17,146 29,239 53,161
Transfers to SEEs 1,025 1,223 1,265 12,191 8,145 25,850
Interest payments 4,998 8,259 13,966 24,073 40,298 116,470
Other transfers 4,420 6,911 9,789 16,450 29,755 89,939
Total expenditures 21,447 38,871 68,527 130,263 221,658 485,249
Budget balance -3,860 -7,502 -11,954 -33,516 -47,434 -133,857
Deferred minus advanced payments -81 -639 -400 90 -12,005 7,754
Cash balance -3,941 -8,141 -12,354 -33,426 -59,439 -126,103
Long-term borrowing (net) 2,609 5,578 7,983 4,200 19,446 51,197
Short-term borrowing (net) 1,064 1,452 2,263 23,509 41,372 75,251
Other (including errors and omissions) 268 1,111 2,108 5,717 -1,379 -345

Table 7. Production of Major Agricultural Commodities, 1987-92 (in thousands of tons)

Commodity 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992
Cereals            
Wheat 18,932 20,500 16,200 20,000 20,400 19,318
Barley 6,900 7,500 4,500 7,300 7,800 6,900
Corn 2,600 2,000 2,000 2,100 2,100 2,100
Rye 385 280 191 240 250 225
Oats 325 276 216 270 255 250
Rice 165 158 181 230 200 215
Total cereals 29,307 30,714 23,288 30,140 31,005 29,008
Industrial crops            
Sugar beets 12,717 11,534 10,929 13,986 15,097 14,800
Cotton (lint) 537 657 565 655 539 605
Tobacco 177 212 270 288 243 320
Total industrial crops 13,431 12,403 11,764 14,929 15,879 15,725
Oilseeds            
Sunflower seed 1,100 1,150 1,250 860 800 950
Cottonseed 859 1,051 904 1,702 1,401 1,573
Sesame seed 43 45 37 39 43 34
Total oilseeds 2,002 2,246 2,191 2,601 2,244 2,557
Vegetables, fruits, and nuts            
Potatoes 4,300 4,350 4,080 4,300 4,600 4,500
Grapes 3,300 3,350 3,430 3,500 3,600 3,460
Oranges 700 740 740 739 835 824
Olives 600 1,100 500 1,100 640 750
Lemons 340 360 335 357 429 420
Hazelnuts (in shell) 280 353 456 375 315 520
Raisins 105 129 138 135 130 120
Dried figs 45 50 50 45 45 35
Olive oil 100 90 72 110 96 n.a.
Total vegetables, fruits, and nuts 9,770 10,522 9,801 10,661 10,690 10,629

n.a.--not available.

Source: Based on information from Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Profile: Turkey, 1994-95, London, 1994, 24.

Table 8. Energy Production, 1988-92 (in thousands of tons unless otherwise indicated)

  1988 1989 1990 1991 1992
Total coal (including lignite) 11,530 12,940 12,550 11,880 12,210
Crude petroleum 2,564 2,876 3,720 4,537 4,584
Main petroleum products 19,265 17,789 18,563 18,409 18,811
Electricity (in thousands of kilowatt hours) 48 52 58 58 67

Source: Based on information from Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Profile: Turkey, 1994-1995, London, 1994, 28; and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Energy Balances of OECD Countries, 1991-1992, Paris, 1994, 170.

Table 9. Exports by Commodity, 1987-92 (in millions of United States dollars)

  1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992
Agricultural products            
Cereals 266 441 315 342 287 419
Hazelnuts 391 359 266 456 366 291
Other fruits and vegetables 409 508 523 612 721 692
Cotton 20 141 160 191 193 46
Tobacco 314 266 480 419 564 309
Other industral crops and forestry products 97 289 53 57 284 268
Live animals and sea products 356 337 330 272 268 178
Total agricultural products 1,853 2,341 2,127 2,349 2,683 2,203
Mineral products 272 377 413 331 286 265
Processed and manufactured products            
Processed agricultural products 954 885 918 940 1,212 1,337
Textiles and clothing 2,707 3,201 3,505 4,060 4,328 5,268
             
             
             
Hides and leather 722 514 604 747 620 568
Chemicals 527 734 774 616 464 491
Petroleum products 232 331 254 287 277 231
Glass and ceramics 205 233 258 329 359 395
Iron and steel 852 1,458 1,349 1,612 1,452 1,558
Metal products and machinery 788 383 219 230 265 398
Electrical equipment and products 293 294 234 438 533 591
Other 785 911 972 1,020 1,119 1,410
Total processed and manufactured products 8,065 8,944 9,087 10,279 10,629 12,247
TOTAL 10,190 11,662 11,627 12,959 13,598 14,715

Source: Based on information from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD Economic Surveys: Turkey, 1995, Paris, 1995, 96; and Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Profile: Turkey, 1994-95, London, 1994, 43.

 

Table 10. Imports by Commodity, 1987-92 (in millions of United States dollars)

Commodity 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992
Agricultural products and livestock 782 499 1,041 1,323 813 1,184
Mineral products            
Oil            
Crude oil 2,711 2,434 2,456 3,817 2,794 2,894
Oil products 245 343 522 805 962 865
Total oil 2,956 2,777 2,980 4,622 3,756 3,759
Other 444 427 448 172 198 161
Total mineral products 3,400 3,204 3,426 4,794 3,954 3,920
Processed and manufactured products            
Processed agricultural products 720 738 843 1,162 989 935
Manufactured products            
Chemicals 1,685 1,781 1,710 2,451 2,463 2,624
Rubber and plastics 488 525 485 807 848 986
Iron and steel 1,537 1,655 2,217 1,932 2,009 2,118
Non ferrous metals 418 412 421 537 452 426
Electrical appliances 940 1,075 1,028 1,580 1,877 1,762
Motor vehicles 540 690 790 1,590 1,540 2,221
Other machinery 974 635 370 585 342 61
Other industrial products 2,799 3,121 3,461 5,541 5,760 6,635
Total manufactured prod- ucts 9,381 9,894 10,482 15,023 15,291 16,833
Total processed and manufactured prod-ucts 10,101 10,632 11,325 16,185 16,280 17,768
TOTAL 14,283 14,335 15,792 22,302 21,047 22,872

Source: Based on information from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD Economic Surveys: Turkey, 1995, Paris, 1995, 97; and Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Profile: Turkey, 1994-95, London, 1994, 44.

 

Table 11. Major Trading Partners, 1988-95

Country 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993
EXPORTS            
OECD countries            
EU countries            
Britain 576 616 744 676 796 835
France 499 595 737 689 809 771
Germany 2,178 2,196 3,076 3,413 3,660 3,654
Italy 955 978 1,106 972 943 750
Other 920 1,047 1,241 1,292 1,393 1,283
Total EU 5,128 5,432 6,904 7,042 7,601 7,293
Japan 209 233 239 226 162 158
Switzerland 265 174 293 246 223 216
United States 761 971 968 913 865 986
Other OECD 374 391 417 430 496 420
Total OECD 6,737 7,201 8,821 8,857 9,346 9,072
Central and East European countries 520 923 829 1,053 1,217 1,670
Middle East and North Africa            
Iran 546 561 495 487 455 290
Iraq 986 445 215 122 212 160
Other 1,924 1,798 1,742 2,085 2,096 2,293
Total Middle East and North Africa 3,456 2,804 2,452 2,694 2,763 2,743
Other 949 699 855 989 1,388 1,863
TOTAL EXPORTS 11,662 11,627 12,957 13,593 14,715 15,349
             
IMPORTS            
OECD countries            
EU countries            
Britain 739 728 1,014 1,166 1,187 1,546
France 829 745 1,340 1,227 1,351 1,952
Germany 2,067 2,225 3,523 3,232 3,754 4,533
Italy 1,006 1,071 1,727 1,845 1,919 2,558
Other 1,267 1,307 1,750 1,753 1,838 2,361
Total EU 5,908 6,076 9,354 9,223 10,049 12,950
Japan 555 530 1,120 1,092 1,113 1,621
Switzerland 344 412 537 489 688 651
United States 1,520 2,094 2,282 2,255 2,601 3,351
Other OECD 924 822 958 1,013 972 1,402
Total OECD 9,251 9,934 14,251 14,072 15,423 19,975
Central and East European coutnries 857 1,124 1,947 1,875 2,094 3,253
             
Middle East and North Africa            
Iran 660 233 492 91 365 667
Iraq 1,441 1,650 1,047 0 1 0
Other 740 947 2,120 2,890 2,872 2,573
Total Middle East and North Africa 2,841 2,830 3,659 2,981 3,238 3,240
Other 1,391 1,902 2,445 2,119 2,116 2,961
TOTAL IMPORTS 14,340 15,790 22,302 21,047 22,871 29,429

Source: Based on information from Organisation for Economic Co-opearation and Development, OECD Economic Surveys: Turkey, 1995, Paris, 1995, 99.

Table 12. Summary of Balance of Payments, Selected Years, 1985-93 (in millions of United States dollars)

  1985 1987 1989 1991 1993
Exports (f.o.b.) 8,255 10,322 11,780 13,667 15,610
Imports (f.o.b.) -11,230 -13,551 15,999 21,007 29,772
Trade balance -2,975 -3,229 -4,219 -7,340 -14,162
Services 22 33 1,622 2,499 4,014
Private transfers (net) 1,762 2,066 3,135 2,854 3,085
Official transfers (net) 222 324 423 2,245 73
Current account balance -969 -806 961 258 -6,990
Private long-term capital (net) 856 1,388 2,456 1,562 6,839
Official long-term capital (net) -594 453 -1,092 -939 -930
Capital account balance 262 1,841 1,364 623 5,909
Balance of payments -707 1,035 2,325 881 1,081
Change in reserves -361 137 2,471 -1,197 308

Source: Based on information from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD Economic Surveys: Turkey, 1995, Paris, 1995, 100.

 

Table 13. Major Army Equipment, 1994

Type and Description Country of Origin In Inventory
Tanks    
Leopard Germany 397
M-48 United States 3,004
M-60 -do- 932
Armored vehicles    
Infantry fighting vehicles Turkey/United States 65
Armored personnel carriers    
M-113 United States 2,815
IAPC United States/Turkey 125
BTR 60 Russia 300
AWC Turkey 345
Self-propelled guns and howitzers    
105mm: M-52A1 and M-108 United States 389
155mm: M-44 -do- 168
175mm: M-107 -do- 36
203mm: M-55 and M-110 -do- 228
Towed artillery    
105mm: M-101A1 and others -do- 640
150mm: Skoda Czechoslovakia 161
155mm: M-114A1 and M-59 United States 613
203mm: M-115 -do- 162
Mortars    
107mm: M-30, some self-propelled -do- 1,265
120mm: various United States/Germany/France 578
81mm: various, including self-propelled -do- 3,175
Multiple rocket launchers    
227mm: MLRS United States/Turkey 12
107mm United States 23
Antitank guided weapons    
Milan France 392
Cobra Germany 186
TOW self-propelled United States 365
Helicopters    
Cobra AH-1W/P -do- 38
S-70A Sikorsky United States 8
AB-204 Agusta Bell Italy 14
AB-205 Agusta Bell -do- 64
AB-212 Agusta Bell -do- 2
UH-1H Iroquois United States 96

Source: Based on information from The Military Balance, 1994-1995, London, 1994, 66-67

Table 14. Major Air Force Equipment, 1994

Type and Description Country of Origin In Inventory
Fighter-bombers and fighter-ground attack    
F-16C/D United States/Turkey 138
F-5A/B United States 195
F-4E -do- 152
F-104G Various NATO 24
Reconnaissance (armed)    
RF-5A United States 20
RF-4E -do- 26
Transports    
C-130E Hercules -do- 13
C-160D Transall Germany 19
CN-235 Spain/Turkey 52
Helicopters    
UH-1H Blackhawk utility United States 21
Surface-to-air missile launchers    
Nike-Hercules -do- 128
Rapier Britain 24

Source: Based on information from The Military Balance, 1994-1995, London, 1994, 68.

 

Table 15. Major Naval Equipment, 1994

Type and Description Country of Origin In Inventory
Destroyers    
Gearing-class United States 8
Carpenter-class -do- 2
Sumner-class -do- 1
Frigates    
MEKO-200 with Sub Harpoon SSM Germany 4
MEKO-200 Turkey 4 (on order)
Berk-class -do- 2
Koln-class Germany 2
Knox-class with Sub Harpoon SSM United States 8
Submarines    
Guppy-class -do- 7
Type-209/1200 Germany/Turkey 6
Type-209/1400 Turkey 2
Tang-class United States 2
Fast-attack craft    
Dogan-class (Lurssen 57) with Harpoon SSM Germany/Turkey 8
Kartal-class (Jaguar) with Penguin SSM Germany 8
Yildiz-class Turkey 2 (on order)
Patrol craft    
Coastal and inshore United States/Germany/Turkey 29
Minelayers United States/Denmark 3
Minesweepers United States/France/Canada 26
Amphibious    
Landing ships, tank United States/Turkey 7
Landing craft, tank Turkey 35
Landing craft, utility -do- 2
Landing craft, mechanized -do- 22
Naval Aviation    
Agusta-Bell AB-212 ASW shipborne helicopters Italy 14
Grumman ST-2E Tracker ASW search United States 14

Source: Based on information from Jane's Fighting Ships, 1994-95, London, 1994, 704-22.


1.Date of beginning of reign is approximate.

2.The period 1403-13, during which the sons of Bayezid I contested succession to the sultanate, is cited as an interregnum by many sources. Other sources date the beginning of the reign of Mehmet I from 1403.

3.Süleyman II in some sources.

4.Süleyman III in some sources.

5.Sultanate abolished 1922; Abdülmecid II (brother of Mehmet VI) remained as caliph 1922-24.

 

 

 

6.President of the Grand National Assembly.

7.CHP--Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi (Republican People's Party).

8.DP--Demokrat Partisi (Democrat Party).

9.Interim government under Committee of National Unity.

10.AP--Adalet Partisi (Justice Party).

11.Acting prime minister.

12.NRP--National Reliance Party.

13.Evren functioned as head of the National Security Council, or de facto chief of state, from September 1980 to November 1982.

14.ANAP--Anavatan Partisi (Motherland Party).

15.DYP--Dogru Yol Partisi (True Path Party).

16.Caretaker prime minister.

17.Projected.

18.Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.

19.For value of the Turkish lira--see Glossary.

20.SEEs--State Economic Enterprises.

Source: Based on information from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Developmnent, OECD Economic Surveys: Turkey, 1995, Paris, 1995, 105.

21.C.I.F.--Cost, insurance, and freight.

22.OECD--Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

23.EU--European Union.

24f.o.b.--free on board.

Turkey

Source: U.S. Library of Congress

Turkey - Appendix B - Political Parties and Labor Organizations

Turkey

Political Parties and Labor Organizations

ANAP
Anavatan Partisi (Motherland Party). Founded in May 1983 under the leadership of Turgut Özal. The ruling party following the 1983 election, the center-right ANAP included mostly former members of the pre-1980 AP (Adalet Partisi) (q.v.) .
AP
Adalet Partisi (Justice Party). Established in 1961, one of the two major parties prior to the September 1980 coup, led by Süleyman Demirel. Following its dissolution by the National Security Council, many of its members subsequently joined the ANAP (q.v.) or the DYP (q.v.)
Birlik ve Baris (Unity and Peace).
Splinter from RP (q.v.) in 1992.
BTP
Büyük Türkiye Partisi (Grand Turkey Party). Founded in May 1983 and banned the same month for having connections with the dissolved AP (q.v.). Its supporters then formed the center-right DYP (q.v.).
CHP
Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi (Republican People's Party). Founded in the 1920s and led by Atatürk until his death in 1938. Headed by Bülent Ecevit in the 1970s, it was one of the major parties prior to the 1980 coup. A majority of its deputies ultimately regrouped in the left-of-center SHP (q.v.); others joined the DSP (q.v.). Party reactivated by Deniz Baykal in 1992. In 1995 the SHP dissolved itself, and many members joined the CHP.
CNU
Committee of National Unity. Composed of thirty-eight officers who executed the May 1960 coup; the CNU governed the country until a constituent assembly was formed in January 1961.
Demokratik Partisi (Democratic Party)
Formed in 1971 by former AP (q.v.) members who disapproved of Süleyman Demirel's leadership; merged with the AP shortly before the 1980 coup. Not a successor to the DP (q.v.).
DEP
Demokrasi Partisi (Democracy Party). Pro-Kurd party formed in 1993 on demise of the HEP (q.v.), proscribed by Constitutional Court in June 1994.
Dev Sol
Devrimçi Sol (Revolutionary Left Party). A radical movement espousing Marxist ideology and advocating violent tactics against state institutions.
DISK
Türkiye Devrimçi Isçi Sendikalari Konfederasyonu (Confederation of Revolutionary Workers' Trade Unions of Turkey). Federation of trade unions second in importance only to Türk-Is (q.v.) before 1980. Banned after 1980, DISK was less influential in the mid-1990s than some of the other labor organizations.
DP
Demokrat Partisi (Democrat Party). Founded in 1946, the party secured power in the 1950 election. It was overthrown and declared illegal by the armed forces in 1960. Should not be confused with the Demokratik Partisi (q.v.). Party reactivated in 1992.
DSP
Demokratik Sol Partisi (Democratic Left Party). Founded in November 1985 by Rahsan Ecevit, wife of former CHP (q.v.) leader Bülent Ecevit, who had been banned from political activity. The party advocated a more radical variety of democratic socialism than the SHP (q.v.).
DYP
Dogru Yol Partisi (True Path Party). Founded in June 1983 after the dissolution of the BTP (q.v.). The center-right party was considered to be the successor to the banned AP (q.v.). Former AP leader Süleyman Demirel was its leader before becoming president. Head in 1995 was Prime Minister Tansu Çiller.
HADEP
Halkin Demokrasi Partisi (People's Democracy Party). Formed in June 1994 as pro-Kurd party.
Hak-Is
Türkiye Hak Isçi Sendikalari Konfederasyonu (Confederation of Turkish Just Workers' Unions). Pro-Islamist union.
HDP
Hür Demokrat Partisi (Free Democratic Party). A short-lived right-wing party founded in 1983 by former members of the MDP (q.v.) under the leadership of Mehmet Yazar. The HDP was disbanded the same year.
HEP
Halkin Emek Partisi (People's Labor Party). Formed in late 1991 to promote full equality of Kurds and Turks within Turkey. Outlawed in 1993.
HP
Halkçi Partisi (Populist Party). Founded in May 1983, it was one of the three parties allowed to compete in the 1983 general election. It merged with Sodep (q.v.) in November 1985 to form the SHP (q.v.).
MÇP
Milliyetçi Çalisma Partisi (Nationalist Labor Party). Founded in July 1983 and originally named the Conservative Party, it changed its name in November 1985 to MÇP. The conservative nationalist party is considered to be the successor to the MHP (q.v.). In 1993 the party reassumed the name of the Nationalist Action Party (MHP).
MDP
Milliyetçi Demokrasi Partisi (Nationalist Democracy Party). Founded in May 1983 under the leadership of General Turgut Sunalp, the party never gained popular support and was dissolved in April 1986.
MHP
Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi (Nationalist Action Party). A militant, nationalist party led by Alparslan Türkes. It was associated with the pre-1980 violence and was banned following the coup. The MÇP (q.v.) was considered to be its successor prior to changing its name to MHP in 1993.
MISK
Türkiye Milliyetçi Isçi Sendikalari Konfederasyonu (Confederation of Turkish Nationalist Workers' Unions). Government-sponsored federation of labor unions.
MSP
Milli Selamet Partisi (National Salvation Party). Founded in 1972 and dissolved in 1980, this conservative, religiously oriented party served in various government coalitions prior to the 1980 coup. Many of its members subsequently supported the RP (q.v.).
OZEP
Freedom and Labor Party. Splinter from SHP (q.v.) formed in 1992.
PKK
Partiya Karkere Kurdistan (Kurdistan Workers' Party). Founded in late 1960s. Initiated armed insurrection on behalf of an independent Kurdistan in 1984; fighting continued through 1995.
RP
Refah Partisi (Welfare Party; also seen as Prosperity Party). A religious party based on Islamic principles; successor to the MSP (q.v.).
SHP
Sosyal Demokrat Halkçi Parti (Social Democratic Populist Party). Formed in November 1985 by the merger of two left-of-center parties, Sodep (q.v.) and the HP (q.v.). Dissolved itself in mid-1995, and many members joined the CHP (q.v.).
Sodep
Sosyal Demokrat Parti (Social Democratic Party). Founded in July 1983, it had the support of the moderate left that had backed the pre-coup CHP (q.v.). Merged with the HP (q.v.) in 1985 to form the SHP (q.v.).
TISK
Türkiye Isveren Sendikalari Konfederasyonu (Turkish Confederation of Employers' Associations). A confederation of employers' associations, concerned primarily with labor-management relations.
TOB
Türkiye Odalar Birligi (Turkish Trade Association). Organization that has represented the interests of merchants and industrialists since the early 1950s. In later years, it has been identified primarily with small and medium-sized firms.
Türk-Is
Türkiye Isçi Sendikalari Konfederasyonu (Confederation of Turkish Trade Unions). The largest and most influential of the union federations.
Turkish Communist Party
Joined TWP (q.v.) in 1987 to form Turkish United Communist Party.
Türkiye Birlesik Komünist Partisi (Turkish United Communist Party).
Created in 1987 by merger of TWP and Turkish Communist Party. Party was banned shortly thereafter, decriminalized in 1991, and then again proscribed.
TÜSIAD
Türk Sanayiçileri ve Is Adamlari Dernegi (Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association). Organization that represents the interests of big business.
TWP
Turkish Workers' Party. Joined with Turkish Communist Party in 1987 to form the Türkiye Birlesik Komünist Partisi (q.v.).
VAP
Vatandas Partisi (Citizens' Party). Founded in March 1986 under the leadership of former ANAP (q.v.) member Vural Arikan. A small center-right party, its two parliamentary deputies joined the DYP (q.v.) in December 1986.

Turkey

Turkey - Bibliography

Turkey

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Findley, Carter V. Ottoman Civil Officialdom: A Social History. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989.

Finkel, Andrew, and Nükhet Sirman, eds. Turkish State, Turkish Society. New York: Routledge, 1990.

Frangakis-Syrett, Elena. The Commerce of Smyrna in the Eighteenth Century, 1700-1820. Athens: Center for Asia Minor Studies, 1992.

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Frey, Frederick W. The Turkish Political Elite. Cambridge, Massachusetts: M.I.T. Press, 1965.

Geyikdagi, Mehmett Yasar. Political Parties in Turkey: The Role of Islam. New York: Praeger, 1984.

Göçek, Fatma Müge. East Encounters West: France and the Ottoman Empire in the 18th Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

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Gunter, Michael M. "Pursuing the Just Cause of Their People": A Study of Contemporary Armenian Terrorism. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986.

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Halley, Laurence. Ancient Affections: Ethnic Groups and Foreign Policy. New York: Praeger, 1985.

Harris, George S. Turkey: Coping with Crisis. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1985.

Hart, Parker T. Two NATO Allies at the Threshold of War--Cyprus: A Firsthand Account of Crisis Management, 1965-1968. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1990.

Heper, Metin. "Islam, Polity, and Society in Turkey: A Middle Eastern Perspective," Middle East Journal, 35, No. 3, Summer 1981, 345-63.

Heper, Metin. The State Tradition in Turkey. Huntingdon, United Kingdom: Eothen Press, 1985.

Heper, Metin, and Ahmet Evin, eds. State, Democracy, and the Military: Turkey in the 1980s. New York: de Gruyter, 1988.

Heper, Metin, and Jacob M. Landau, eds. Political Parties and Democracy in Turkey. New York: Tauris, 1991.

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Inalcik, Halil. "The Heyday and Decline of the Ottoman Empire." Pages 324-53 in P.M. Holt, Ann K.S. Lambton, and Bernard Lewis, eds., The Cambridge History of Islam, 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

Inalcik, Halil. The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age, 1300-1600. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1973.

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Karpat, Kemal H. Turkey's Politics: The Transition to a Multi-Party System. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1959.

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Kasaba, Resat. The Ottoman Empire and the World Economy: The 19th Century. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988.

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Kinross, Patrick Balfour. Atatürk: A Biography of Mustafa Kemal, Father of Modern Turkey. New York: Morrow, 1965.

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Landau, Jacob M. Pan-Turkism in Turkey: A Study of Irredentism. Hamden, Connecticut: Archon Books, 1981.

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Lewis, Geoffrey. Modern Turkey. New York: Praeger, 1974.

Lewis, Raphaela. Everyday Life in Ottoman Turkey. New York: Putnam, 1971.

Lindner, Rudi Paul. Nomads and Ottomans in Medieval Anatolia. (Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies.) Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1983.

Lloyd, Seton. Early Turkey: A Traveller's History of Anatolia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.

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Turkey

Turkey - Glossary

Turkey
Alevi
(Alawi in Arabic), a heterodox Shia (q.v.) Islamic sect that has many followers in Turkey.
barrels per day
Production of crude oil and petroleum products is frequently measured in barrels per day, often abbreviated bpd or bd. A barrel is a volume measure of forty-two United States gallons. Conversion of barrels to tons depends on the density of the specific product. About 7.3 barrels of average crude oil weigh one ton. Heavy crude weighs about seven barrels per ton. Light products, such as gasoline and kerosene, average close to eight barrels per ton.
capitulations
Special agreements between the Ottoman Empire and various foreign governments giving those governments and their citizens and subjects specific exemptions from the laws of the empire.
Common Agricultural Policy
Agricultural support system of the EU (q.v.), under which farmers' incomes are maintained through a system of target prices for agricultural commodities.
etatism
Often considered as state socialism. In Turkish use, it involves state control of some industries and public services.
European Community (EC)
See European Union (EU).
European Currency Unit (ECU)
Instituted in 1979, the ECU is the unit of account of the EU (q.v.). The value of the ECU is determined by the value of a basket that includes the currencies of all EU member states. In establishing the value of the basket, each member's currency receives a share that reflects the relative strength and importance of the member's economy. In 1995 one ECU was equivalent to about one United States dollar.
European Union (EU)
Until November 1993, the EU was known as the European Community (EC). The EU comprises three communities: the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Economic Community (EEC), and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). Each community is a legally distinct body, but since 1967 they have shared common governing institutions. The EU forms more than a framework for free trade and economic cooperation: the signatories to the treaties governing the communities have agreed in principle to integrate their economies and ultimately to form a political union. Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) were charter members of the EU; Britain, Denmark, and Ireland joined on January 1, 1973; Greece became a member on January 1, 1981; Portugal and Spain entered on January 1, 1986; and Austria, Finland, and Sweden became members on January 1, 1995.
fiscal year
Calendar year since 1983.
gecekondus
Literally, "built overnight"; term used for shantylike squatter housing erected on outskirts of large cities. Ottoman custom dictated that once a structure was built, it could not be destroyed.
gross domestic product (GDP)
A value measure of the flow of domestic goods and services produced by an economy over a period of time, such as a year. Only output values of goods for final consumption and intermediate production are assumed to be included in the final prices. GDP is sometimes aggregated and shown at market prices, meaning that indirect taxes and subsidies are included; when these indirect taxes and subsidies have been eliminated, the result is GDP at factor cost. The word gross indicates that deductions for depreciation of physical assets have not been made. See also gross national product.
gross national product (GNP)
The gross domestic product (q.v.) plus net income or loss stemming from transactions with foreign countries including income received from abroad by residents and subtracting payments remitted abroad to nonresidents. GNP is the broadest measurement of the output of goods and services by an economy. It can be calculated at market prices, which include indirect taxes and subsidies. Because indirect taxes and subsidies are only transfer payments, GNP is often calculated at factor cost by removing indirect taxes and subsidies.
imam
A word used in several senses. In general use and lower-cased, it means the leader of congregational prayers; as such it implies no ordination or special spiritual powers beyond sufficient education to carry out this function. Imam is also used figuratively by many Sunni (q.v.) Muslims to mean the leader of the Islamic community. Among Shia (q.v.) the word takes on many complex and controversial meanings; in general, however, it indicates that particular descendant of the House of Ali who is believed to have been God's designated repository of the spiritual authority inherent in that line. The identity of this individual and the means of ascertaining his identity have been major issues causing divisions among Shia.
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Established along with the World Bank (q.v.) in 1945, the IMF is a specialized agency affiliated with the United Nations and is responsible for stabilizing international exchange rates and payments. The main business of the IMF is the provision of loans to its members (including industrialized and developing countries) when they experience balance of payments difficulties. These loans frequently carry conditions that require substantial internal economic adjustments by the recipients, most of which are developing countries.
lira
Turkish currency; 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus. Value of the lira has fluctuated considerably. In 1989 US$1.00 = TL2,122; in 1991 US$1.00 = TL4,172; in 1993 US$1.00 = TL10,983; in January 1994 US$1.00 = TL 15,196; as of August 31, 1995, US$1.00 = TL47,963.
millet
A non-Muslim group or community in the Ottoman Empire organized under its own religious head, who also exercised important civil functions.
National Security Council (NSC--Mili Güvenlik Kurulu)
Under both the 1961 and the 1982 constitutions, the NSC comprised military and civilian personnel and was charged with reviewing national security policy. The generals who took control of Turkey's government in 1980 also constituted themselves as a National Security Council (Milli Güvenlik Konseyi); this body was abolished following the reestablishment of civilian government after the 1983 election. The former members of the 1980-83 NSC, except for President Evren, subsequently formed the Presidential Council, whose function was to advise the president. The Presidential Council was dissolved in 1989.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
In 1995 membership composed of Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and United States.
Shia (from Shiat Ali, the Party of Ali)
A member of the smaller of the two great divisions of Islam. The Shia originated in a dispute over who should be the legitimate successor to the Prophet; a majority of early Muslims accepted the tradition of community consensus to choose the leader, but a minority supported the claim of Ali, the Prophet's cousin, to inherit the mantle of leadership. Over time, theological differences emerged between the Shia and Sunni (q.v.). The Alevi (q.v.), Ismaili, Twelve Imam Shia, and Zayidi all are distinct Shia sects.
Sublime Porte (or Porte)
Ottoman Empire palace entrance that provided access to the chief minister, who represented the government and the sultan. Term came to mean the Ottoman government.
Sunni--(from Arabic sunna, tradition or precedent)
A follower of the larger of the two primary denominations of Islam.
tarikat (pl., tarikatlar)
A Sufi order or lodge, usually headed by a teacher or master known as a seyh, in which devotees undertake a path of instruction toward spiritual perfection.
Warsaw Treaty Organization
Formal name for Warsaw Pact. Political-military alliance founded by the Soviet Union in 1955 as a counterweight to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (q.v.). Albania, an original member, stopped participating in Warsaw Pact activities in 1962 and withdrew in 1968. Members in 1991 included Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union. Before it was formally dissolved in April 1991, the Warsaw Pact served as the Soviet Union's primary mechanism for keeping political and military control over Eastern Europe.
World Bank
Informal name used to designate a group of four affiliated international institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Development Association (IDA), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). The IBRD, established in 1945, has as its primary purpose the provision of loans to developing countries for productive projects. The IDA, a legally separate loan fund but administered by the staff of the IBRD, was set up in 1960 to furnish credits to the poorest developing countries on much easier terms than those of conventional IBRD loans. The IFC, founded in 1956, supplements the activities of the IBRD through loans and assistance designed specifically to encourage the growth of productive private enterprises in the less developed countries. The MIGA, founded in 1988, insures private foreign investment in developing countries against various noncommercial risks. The president and certain senior officers of the IBRD hold the same positions in the IFC. The four institutions are owned by the governments of the countries that subscribe their capital. To participate in the World Bank group, member states must first belong to the International Monetary Fund (IMF--q.v.).

Turkey





CITATION: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. The Country Studies Series. Published 1988-1999.

Please note: This text comes from the Country Studies Program, formerly the Army Area Handbook Program. The Country Studies Series presents a description and analysis of the historical setting and the social, economic, political, and national security systems and institutions of countries throughout the world.


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