References


Chapter 8:

Mining

Accounts of the Guyana cyanide spill of 1995 are found in World Rainforest Movement, "Guyana: Logging Freeze Starts to Melt, More Mining," 3/14/96 and Bretton Woods Reform Organization (BWRO), "A Call for Accountability for Poisonous Cyanide Discharge," 8/28/95.

Examples of environmental degradation caused by Freeport mine operations in Indonesia is presented by Chatterjee, P., "Human Rights-Indonesia - US mining giant implicated in Indonesia atrocities," 1995; Press, E., "Freeport: Corporate Predator," The Nation. July 31/August 7, 1995; and Walsh, P., "Witnessing 'GP?K' Drama, blood, and tears of Jo-Mun Nerk's Children in the Freeport Concession Area," Australian Council for Overseas Aid, 1995.

The Rainforest Action Network (1993-1995) described the Yanomani situation including malaria and armed conflicts between miners and the Yanomani.

Gold mining in the Amazon rainforest is covered in Nigel J.H. Smith, Emanuel Adilson S. Serro, Paulo T. Alvim, and Italo C. Falesi, Amazonia - Resiliency and Dynamism of the Land and its People, The United Nations University, 1995.

Pfeiffer, W. C. and L. D. de Lacerda. ("Mercury inputs into the Amazon region, Brazil," Environmental Technological Letters 9: 325-330, 1988) found that for every kilogram of gold produced, an estimated 1.32 kg of mercury is dumped into the environment.

The gold find at Serra Pelada in the Brazilian Amazon is reviewed by Schmink, M. ("Social change in the garimpo," in John Hemming (ed.), Change in the Amazon basin, Vol. 2: The frontier after a decade of colonisation, Manchester:Manchester University Press, 1985) and Mallas, J. and N. Benedicto ("Mercury and gold mining in the Brazilian Amazon," Ambio 15(4): 248-249, 1986).

Fires

Forest fires in the Amazon have had extensive coverage in popular media and academic literature in recent years. The Woods Hole Research Center gives an excellent background of fire in the Amazon in its RisQue98 (Risco de Queimada, or "Risk of Burning" in Amazonia - 1998), Several papers in scientific journals examine the extent of fires and how they move from agricultural lands into intact rainforest including: Nepstad, D.C. et al, "Large-scale impoverishment of Amazonian forests by logging and fire," Nature Vol. 398 (505-508), 8-April-99; Cochrane, M.A. et al., "Positive feedbacks in the fire dynamic of closed canopy tropical forests," Science Vol. 284 (1832-1935) 11-June-1999; Cochrane, M.A. "Forest Fires in the Brazilian Amazon." Conservation Biology Vol. 12 No. 5 (949-950), Oct. 1998. Some press articles on the subject include: Simons, M., "Vast Amazon Fires, Man-Made, Linked to Global Warming," New York Times, 8/12/88; Margolis, M., "Thousands of Amazon Acres Burning," Washington Post. 9/8/88; Simons, M., "Vast Amazon Fires, Man-Made, Linked to Global Warming," New York Times, 8/12/88; Wilson, E.O., The Diversity of Life, Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 1992; Schemo, D.J., "Amazon Jungle Going Up in Smoke Again," New York Times. 10/13/95; Christie, M., "The Amazon Is Burning Again, Officials Say," Reuters. 10/3/97; Donn, J., "Report: Amazon rain forest fading," Associated Press, 4/8/99; and Couzin, J., "The forest still burns." U.S. News & World Report April 19, 1999.

The forest fires of Southeast Asia during the 1997-98 ENSO event received unprecedented coverage for an environmental event.
Estimates for area affected: McCall, C. "Asia's unique species go up in smoke. Reuters. 6/17/98; and Kinnaird, M.F. and O'Brien, T.G., "Ecological effects of wildfire on lowland rainforest in Sumatra," Conservation Biology Vol. 12 No. 5 (954-956), October 1995; Stolle, F. and Tomich, T.P., "The 1997-1998 fire event in Indonesia," Nature and Resources Vol. 5, No. 3, July-Sep 1999;
Pollution and health impacts: Balowski, J., "Suharto Fiddles While Indonesia Burns" Greenleft Weekly, October 15, 1997; Edwards, N., "Public Anger Could Heat up Over Southeast Asia Smog," Reuters, 22-SEP-97; and Gilbert, C., "Indonesia's Peat Smoulders Underground," Environment News Service, 11/13/97; Stolle, F. and Tomich, T.P., "The 1997-1998 fire event in Indonesia," Nature and Resources Vol. 5, No. 3, July-Sep 1999.
Economic costs: AP, "Acid Rain and Other Problems Coming Soon for Southeast Asia." 11/10/97; AP, "Malaysia orders experts to keep quiet on haze" 11/7/97; AP, "Drought Cuts Indonesia's Harvests; Haze Worsens in some Parts" 10/24/97; Johnson, C., "Indonesia's Fires Could Cost 5-6 B, experts say," Reuters, 3/17/98; Rajendran, R., "Southeast Asia Fire Damage Estimated at around $4.4 billion," Reuters, 5/29/98; Stolle, F. and Tomich, T.P., "The 1997-1998 fire event in Indonesia," Nature and Resources Vol. 5, No. 3, July-Sep 1999; and Xinhua, "Forest Fires in Indonesia Cause Huge Economic Losses," 10/23/97.
Ecological impact: Abramovitz, J.N., Agence France-Presse, "Indonesia counts the cost of forest fires" 10/6/97;McCall, C. "Asia's unique species go up in smoke. Reuters. 6/17/98; Agence France-Presse, "Fires multiplying in Indonesian disaster: World Wide Fund for Nature" 9/29/97; AP (AP:3), "Wildlife in Indonesia under Even Bigger Siege Due to Drought, Fires" 10/6/97; Estrade, B., "Heat from Indonesian fires to be felt at climate meet," Agence France-Presse, 11/28/97; Gilbert, C., "Indonesia's Peat Smoulders Underground," Environment News Service, 11/13/97; Pardomuan, L., "Green Group Warns of Crises after Indonesian Fires," Reuters, 15-OCT-97; Raven, G., "Indonesia Fires Hit National Parks--Pressure Group," Reuters, 10/9/97; Rosenfeld, D., "Dense smoke turns off normal tropical rainfall," Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 26 (3105) 1999; Williams, L. and Baker, M., "South Asia's Year of Reckoning." Sydney Morning Herald, 10/6/97; and Xinhua, "Fires reduce insects in East Kalimantan, Indonesia," 4/20/98;
Political culpability in Indonesia: Abramovitz, J.N., Agence France-Presse, "Indonesia counts the cost of forest fires" 10/6/97; Aditjondro, G.J., "Palm Oil Nepotism Adds Fuel to Disaster" Australian Financial Review, 10/13/97; Agence France-Presse, "Jakarta Reinstates 45 Permits Revoked for Forest Burning Violations" 12/2/97; Balowski, J., "Suharto Fiddles While Indonesia Burns" Greenleft Weekly, October 15, 1997; Della-Giacoma, J., "Fires burn unchecked in Indonesia's South Sumatra," Reuters. 10-SEP-97; Edwards, N., "Public Anger Could Heat up Over Southeast Asia Smog," Reuters, 22-SEP-97; Gilbert, C., "Indonesia's Peat Smoulders Underground," Environment News Service, 11/13/97; Gopalakrishnan, R., "Indonesia Timber King Denies Responsible for Fires," Reuters, 10/3/97; Johnson, C., "Indonesia's Fires Could Cost 5-6 B, experts say," Reuters, 3/17/98; Lamb, D., "Fires Again Ravage Indonesia's Forests," Los Angeles Times, 3/23/98; Reuters, "Indonesian Fires No Accident, Singapore Paper Say" 10/2/97; Richardson, M., "Indonesian Crisis Prompts Fears of New Smoke Pollution." International Herald Tribune. 2/13/98; Thoenes, S., "In Asia's Big Haze, Man Battles Man-Made Disaster," The Christian Science Monitor, 10/28/97; and Williams, L. and Baker, M., "South Asia's Year of Reckoning." Sydney Morning Herald, 10/6/97;
Transmigration program: Gilbert, C., "Indonesia's Peat Smoulders Underground," Environment News Service, 11/13/97; MacKenzie, I., "Fire Ribbons Send Smog from Indonesian Peat Bogs," Reuters. 11/11/97;
and Thoenes, S., "In Asia's Big Haze, Man Battles Man-Made Disaster," The Christian Science Monitor, 10/28/97.
History of fires in Southeast Asia: Balowski, J., "Suharto Fiddles While Indonesia Burns" Greenleft Weekly, October 15, 1997; Leighton, M. and Wirawan, N., "Catastrophic Drought and Fire in Borneo Rain Forests Associated with the 1982-83 El Nino Southern Oscillation Event," in G.T. Prance, ed. Tropical Rain Forests and the World Atmosphere, Westview: Boulder, Colorado 1986; and Nathan, D., "Can you really hope that the haze will go," Singapore Straights Times, 10/5/97.
Climactic Impact: Williams, L. and Baker, M., "South Asia's Year of Reckoning." Sydney Morning Herald, 10/6/97; Pardomuan, L., "Green Group Warns of Crises after Indonesian Fires," Reuters, 15-OCT-97;
Rosenfeld, D. ("Dense smoke turns off normal tropical rainfall," Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 26 (3105) 1999) found that dense smoke from the Borneo fires of 1997-1998 completely turned off normal tropical rainfall in some places because moisture was divided among so many droplets that they were too small to fall as precipitation.
 
 

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