No location in Sulawesi is more than 100 km from the coast. Map by Rhett A. Butler
Forest condition on the island of Sulawesi. A composite of 32 Landsat images was manually classified based upon both visual inspection and the results from several remote-sensing techniques. The 'converted' class includes all sites that are completely dominated by human activity, including urban areas and regions of intensive agriculture and plantations. Image and caption courtesy of Canon, et. al (2007).
Cargill to boost investment in Indonesian oil palm plantations
(03/26/2013) Cargill plans to 'aggressively' expand its palm oil holdings in Sulawesi, Indonesian Borneo, and Sumatra, reports The Wall Street Journal.
Palm oil company thugs attack Sulawesi villagers, injuring 8
(02/06/2013) Local thugs, allegedly linked to an oil palm plantation company, attacked a group of villagers in Indonesia’s Gorontalo province on the island of Sulawesi last week, injuring eight people, including a woman and a small child.
Photos: Population of critically-endangered black macaque on rebound
(01/26/2013) An important population of critically endangered Sulawesi black macaques (Macaca nigra) is showing signs of recovery after years of decline in an Indonesian forest reserve, reports a study published in the January issue of the American Journal of Primatology.
The world's 25 most endangered primates: nearly a quarter in Madagascar
(10/15/2012) A coalition of conservation groups released the biannual Top 25 Primates list today, including nine species not appearing on the 2010 list, at the UN's Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in Hyderabad, India. Madagascar tops the list as home to the most threatened primates, including six on the list. Following Madagascar, Vietnam contains five, Indonesia three, and Brazil two. In all, over half (54 percent) of the world's primates, which have been evaluated, are considered threatened by the IUCN Red List.
Bizarre new rodent discovered in Indonesia has only 2 teeth
(08/22/2012) The Indonesian island of Sulawesi is a workshop of bizarre evolutionary experiments. Think of the babirusa, pig-like species with tusks that puncture their snouts; or the maleo, a ground-bird that lays its eggs in geothermal heated sand; or the anoa, the world's smallest wild cattle. Now the island, made up of four intersecting peninsulas, can add another bizarre creature to its menagerie of marvels: the Paucidentomys vermidax, a new species of rodent that is different from all others.
New mammal discovered in Indonesia
(07/24/2012) Researchers have discovered a new species of rodent in Indonesia's Mekongga Mountains, reports the Jakarta Post. The new rodent, Christine's Margareta rat (Margaretamys christinae), is only the fourth in the genus Margaretamy, all of which are found on the island of Sulawesi.
Charts: deforestation in Indonesia and Malaysia, 2000-2010
(07/15/2012) Indonesia and Malaysia lost more than 11 million hectares (42,470 square miles) of forest between 2000 and 2010, according to a study published last year in the journal Global Change Biology. The area is roughly the size of Denmark or the state of Virginia. The bulk of forest loss occurred in lowland forests, which declined by 7.8 million hectares or 11 percent on 2000 cover. Peat swamp forests lost the highest percentage of cover, declining 19.7 percent. Lowland forests have historically been first targeted by loggers before being converted for agriculture. Peatlands are increasingly converted for industrial oil palm estates and pulp and paper plantations.
Indonesia green news review: Sulawesi regent arrested for alleged palm oil corruption
(07/09/2012) Indonesia’s Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) arrested Amran Batalipu, the regent of Buol, Central Sulawesi, on charges that he received bribes in issuing palm oil plantation permits in his regency.
Saving Indonesia's monkey with a heart-shaped bottom
(06/05/2012) North Sulawesi is one of the world's most beautiful places. Verdant forests and stunning coral reefs, combined with high levels of species endemism, make it a top biodiversity hotspot. But pressure on the region's natural resources is mounting. Mining projects, conversion of forests for plantations, overfishing, and the expansion of a commercial bushmeat trade is endangering some of Sulawesi's most charismatic animals, including the distinctive Sulawesi crested black macaque. Found only in North Sulawesi, the crested black macaque could be one of Indonesia's most iconic conservation symbols, but relatively few people know of its existence. And the locals who do may be inclined to eat it as a delicacy.
New book series hopes to inspire research in world's 'hottest biodiversity hotspot'
(01/17/2012) Entomologist Dmitry Telnov hopes his new pet project will inspire and disseminate research about one of the world's last unexplored biogeographical regions: Wallacea and New Guinea. Incredibly rich in biodiversity and still full of unknown species, the region, also known as the Indo-Australian transition, spans many of the tropical islands of the Pacific, including Indonesia's Sulawesi, Komodo and Flores, as well as East Timor—the historically famous "spice islands" of the Moluccan Archipelago—the Solomon Islands, and, of course, New Guinea. Telnov has begun a new book series, entitled Biodiversity, Biogeography and Nature Conservation in Wallacea and New Guinea, that aims to compile and highlight new research in the region, focusing both on biology and conservation. The first volume, currently available, also includes the description of 150 new species.
Meet the just discovered 'Komodo dragon' of wasps
(08/28/2011) A new species of warrior wasp has been discovered on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi that is so large and, frankly, terrifying-looking that it has been dubbed the 'Komodo dragon' of the wasp family. Bizarrely, the male of the species has jaws that outstretch its limbs. "I don't know how it can walk," said the wasp's discoverer, entomologist Lynn Kimsey of the University of California, Davis and director of the Bohart Museum of Entomology, in a press release. "Its jaws are so large that they wrap up either side of the head when closed."
Cute animal picture of the day: baby tarsier
(07/29/2011) The spectral tarsier of Sulawesi is one of the world's smallest primates, weighing roughly the equivalent ten U.S. quarters when full-grown.
2-4 new shrew species discovered in Sulawesi
(06/28/2011) A research expedition has turned up two to four new species of shrew on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, reports a conservation group working to protect their forest habitat.
Distressed Place and Faded Grace in North Sulawesi
(05/10/2011) The Nantu Wildlife Reserve is located in northern Sulawesi’s Minehasa Peninsula, in Gorontalo Province. Sulawesi is among the largest of Indonesia’s some seventeen thousand islands. Its shape is bizarre: a sinuous sprawling monkey, with lavish tail, poised to leap the straits of Makassar. Sulawesi lies to the north of Bali and Lombok and to the east of Borneo. Alfred Russell Wallace, the nineteenth century English explorer and natural scientist of broad expertise, spent a lot of time in Sulawesi’s northern peninsula, casting his curiosity and observation with such singular acuity that his mind apprehended “Darwin’s theory of evolution” independently from and possibly before Darwin. His work described the zone of transition between the Asian and Australian zoographic regions and was so accurate and thorough in its logic that today, some one-hundred and fifty years later, the zone is named Wallacea.
REDD project developer Carbon Conservation partly acquired by mining company
(05/03/2011) East Asia Minerals Corporation, an Asian mining company, has acquired a 50% stake in Carbon Conservation, a Australian company that developed one of the world's first forest conservation projects funded by carbon credits, for $500,000, according to a press release from the mining company.
Sulawesi groups recognized for efforts to save endangered wildlife, forests
(12/08/2010) Two groups working with local communities to conserve forests in Sulawesi have won mongabay.com's 2010 Conservation Award. The Alliance for Tompotika Conservation (AlTo), which works in Central Sulawesi, and the Nantu Forest Conservation Program, which operates in North Sulawesi, were recognized for their efforts to protect endangered forests on the Indonesian island, which is known for its high levels of endemic species.
Saving the maleo, a geothermal nesting bird, in Sulawesi
(12/06/2010) More species are threatened with extinction in Indonesia than any other country on Earth. If we are to save them, it will take more protected areas, radical shifts in deforestation, and better anti-poaching efforts, but in many cases it will also take species-specific conservation efforts that work directly with local people. The Alliance for Tompotika Conservation (AlTo) is a model organization for this method, founder Marcy Summers describes it as 'very small, community-based, and efficient, with very low overhead.' By focusing on the wonderfully bizarre maleo, a ground-dwelling bird on the island of Sulawesi, the organization has succeeded in protecting a vital nesting area while initiating a moratorium on the egg-harvesting, which once devastated the species.
Saving Sulawesi's 'pig-deer', the babirusa
(12/06/2010) The babirusa of Sulawesi may be one of the world's oddest looking—and acting—mammals. Literally meaning 'pig-deer' the babirusa, which includes four species, belongs to its own genus 'Babyrousa' in the pig family. Males are especially unique, sporting four tusks, two of which appear to come right out of the animal's snout. To make it to the top of the babirusa hierarchy, males will combat each other in an activity dubbed 'boxing' where they will rear up on their hind legs and club at each other. Despite their many oddities, the babriusa were not formally studied until the late 1980s when Dr. Lynn Clayton spent four years in Sulawesi's forest observing them.
Amazing reefs: how corals 'hear', an interview with Steve Simpson
(07/21/2010) Corals aggregate to form vast reefs, which are home to numerous species and provide vital ecological services such as protecting shorelines. However, coral reefs are one of the most threatened ecosystems in the world due to many factors, such as global warming and ocean acidification. Recent research by Simpson and his team of scientists has shown that corals, rather than drifting aimlessly after being released by their parent colonies and by chance landing back on reefs, instead find their way purposefully to reefs by detecting the sound of snapping shrimps and grunting fish on the reef. However, that discovery also means that the larvae might struggle to find reefs when human noises, like drilling or boats, mask the natural ocean sounds.
Photo: Scientists discover new species of Komodo dragon-like lizard
(07/21/2009) German researchers have discovered a new species of monitor lizard in Indonesia using DNA analysis and morphological characteristics. The species, Varanus lirungensis, is described in the Australian Journal of Zoology.
FACTS ON SULAWESI
Land Areas: 174,600 square kilometers, making it the world’s 11th largest island (67, 413 square miles, 17.4 million hectares, or 43 million acres)
Human Population: 16 million (2005)
Biodiversity: 1450 birds, 127 mammals
Percent Forest Cover: Around 20%
Deforestation Rate: 2.35 percent annually between 1985-1997)
Causes of Deforestation: Agriculture, logging, and mining
Shaped like a lower-case 'k', the Indonesian island of Sulawesi is the world’s eleventh largest island. A treasure-trove of biodiversity with a startling number of endemic species (species that are found no-where else in the world), Sulawesi—formerly known as Celebes—has only recently become a target of conservationists. While much of the island remains unstudied by researchers much of its forest habitat has already been lost.
The tropical forests—which once covered the whole island—have been broadly deforested by agriculture, logging, and mining. The process accelerated in the late 20th Century when the government began supporting commercial logging and large agriculture projects. Locals also began converting forests into cash crops.
A study in 2007 found that 80 percent of Sulawesi's forest is gone or degraded, including almost the entirety of Sulawesi’s rich lowland rainforest and mangroves. The study further speculated that little deforestation in the future is possible since most of forest land that was useful for cultivation and logging is already gone. With few attractive commercial trees, Sulawesi’s highland forests have fared better, though many have suffered from degradation.
At 174,600 square kilometers, Sulawesi is the world's eleventh largest island just after Ellesmere Island in Canada. It is famously described as a big island with no interior, given that the island consists almost entirely of four interconnecting peninsulas.
Its large and winding coastline measures 6,000 kilometers. The island is surrounded on all sides by other big islands: Borneo to the west, Philippines to the north, the Maluku islands to the east, and Flores and Timor to the south.
Politically, Sulawesi is split into six Indonesian provinces: Mamuju (West Sulawesi), Manado (North Sulawesi), Palu (Central Sulawesi), Makassar (South Sulawesi), Kendari (Southeast Sulawesi), and Gorontalo. With 1.25 million people, Makassar is the largest city on the island; it rests on the southwestern peninsula.
The strange shape of Sulawesi—five connected peninsulas with little to hold them together—was created by a collision of multiple plates originating from Asia, Australia, and the Pacific islands.
The island contains thirteen freshwater lakes including the deepest lake, Matano, in Southeast Asia.
Fishing, and increasingly aquaculture, has become important to Sulawesi's economy. Fish ponds and shrimp aquaculture has replaced much of the island's mangroves.
Other economic industries include commercial timber such as teak and rattan and tourism, which is seen as increasingly important by the government.
In 2004, 16.7 percent of Sulawesi's population were considered to be living in poverty. Most of the poor live in rural areas.
Sulawesi has a remarkable diversity of terrestrial flora and fauna and rich coastal marine life. Since the unique island sits on Wallace's Line it harbors species of both Asian and Australasian ancestors, though the majority are Australasian in origin.
On land, the percentage of endemic species is particularly noteworthy. Of 127 known mammals, 72 are endemic, making for one of the highest rates of endemic mammals in the world (62 percent). When bats are excluded—since they have better potential for migration—the percentage leaps to an astounding 98 percent. In addition, 34 percent of Sulawesi’s nearly 1500 birds are endemic.
Other fauna are unfortunately little studied. Twenty-five species of amphibian are known, forty lizards, and at least 52 terrestrial snakes. In addition, there are 38 species of large swallow-tailed butterfly, which so entranced Alfred Russell Wallace on his visit to the island. Researchers have also found 67 endemic species of fish in Sulawesi's dwindling mangrove forests.
Some standouts include:
The island's biodiversity is ripe for more discovery and study.
One of the marine biodiversity standouts is the Sulawesi coelacanth. This is the second species of the prehistoric survivor and is classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN Red List because it is threatened as bycatch. The coelacanth is not a target for fishermen.
Mangrove forests: found in estuaries and along Sulawesi's large coastline. At one time mangroves covered much of the coastlines, but most of these have been lost.
Montane forests: rising above 1,000 meters these forests are some of the most intact forests in Sulawesi. Lower montane forests are primarily made up of oak and chestnut species, while upper montane forests support a variety of conifers.
Monsoon forests: this unique forest type is little-studied. It receives the lowest amount of rain in all Indonesia and is able to survive long droughts. However, much of this forest type has been lost to grazing land.
Ultrabasic forests: a unique forest type that grows on nutrient-poor ultrabasic soil with little plant diversity, but high endemism since unique plants—like pitcher plants—have evolved to fill this niche. Ultrabasic forests are made up of short twisted trees. Few fauna live here.
Limestone forests: shallow soil and steep slopes make these forests low both in abundance and diversity. They are home to some endemic species like snails.
Peat swamp forest: though Sulawesi only has small areas of peat swamp forests they contain high biodiversity, especially of birds.
Freshwater swamp forests: like peat swamp forests, freshwater forests only cover a small area of Sulawesi. They are made up of palms, pandans, and pitcher plants.
Over 95 percent of Sulawesi's mangrove forests and lowland forests are disturbed. In less than a decade—between the mid 1980s and 1993—Sulawesi mangroves have been decreased by over 60 percent in part due to aquaculture for seafood such as shrimp.
Wetlands have suffered even worse: 99 percent of the island's wetlands are either gone or damaged.
Current rates of forest loss are lower than much of Indonesia, but this is primarily because much of the island's lowland forest was already gone by as early as 1985.
Forest loss is due primarily to logging and conversion. Beginning in the 1970s the government began supporting large-scale logging and vast agricultural projects. Since then migrants from urban areas to the countryside have converted large tracks of forest into cash crops such as coffee and cacao.
Since montane forests contain very few commercial species, they are relatively safe from loggers, but hunting, fires, and erosion due to cleared areas remain major threats.
Pollution and habitat destruction from mining poses a threat to biodiversity and ecosystem health. Mining is even reported to occur within the boundaries of protected areas.
Bushmeat hunting and poaching is a large issue for a number of endangered species, including anoa, babirusa, black crested macaques, and the maleo since its eggs are poached.
South Sulawesi, as opposed to north and central, is serviced by few parks and protected areas, leaving species and forests there particularly vulnerable.
Central Sulawesi contains the most well-known park on the island, Lore Lindu National Park spanning 229,000 hectares. It is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve.
On the northern peninsula, Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park protects 300,000 square hectares, while Rawa Aopa Watmohai National Park protects 105,194 hectares in southeast Sulawesi.
Most of the parks, however, suffer frequent encroachment for illegal logging, mining, and even conversion into crops. Thousands of illegal gold miners have been found plying their trade in Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park.
Sulawesi also has three national marine parks: Bunaken, Wakatobi, and Take Bonerate.
Bunaken National Park includes islands, mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs. Taka Bonerate National Park protects the Taka Bonerate atoll (and surrounding coral reefs), the world's third largest atoll and the largest in Southeast Asia. Last but not least, Wakatobi National Park is made up of island chains and 25 coral reefs.
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