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Venezuela Index

Petroleum dominated the economy throughout the twentieth century. In 1989 the petroleum industry provided almost 13 percent of the GDP, 51 percent of government revenues, and 81 percent of exports. Before the sharp drop in international oil prices in the 1980s, these ratios were considerably higher. From 1929 to 1970, the year of the country's peak production, Venezuela was the world's largest exporter of petroleum. In 1990 the country ranked as the third leading oil exporter, after Saudi Arabia and Iran, and contained at least 7 percent of proven world oil reserves.

The country's national petroleum company, the Venezuelan Petroleum Corporation (Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A.--PDVSA), the third largest international oil conglomerate, owned refineries and service stations in North America and Europe. Although Venezuela was only the third largest petroleum producer in the Western Hemisphere, behind the United States and Mexico, its proven reserves, at 58.5 billion barrels in 1989, exceeded those of both countries. Venezuela exported 54 percent of its petroleum to the United States in 1988, representing about 8 percent of American petroleum imports.

The first commercial drilling of petroleum in Venezuela took place in 1917. After World War I, British and American multinational oil companies rushed to Lago de Maracaibo to tap the country's huge petroleum reserves. Oil jumped from 31 percent of exports to 91 percent from 1924 to 1934. The industry proved extremely lucrative to the scores of foreign companies that drilled Venezuelan crude because of the country's low wages and nominal taxes, policies supported by corrupt relations between foreign oil companies and various military dictatorships.

In the forty-year period after the death of Juan Vicente Gómez in 1935, the government and foreign oil companies engaged in a tug-of-war over taxation, regulation, and, ultimately, ownership. Although Venezuela reaped substantially greater benefits from its generous oil endowment after 1943, corruption and deceit on the part of the foreign companies and avaricious caudillos such as Pérez Jiménez still limited the national benefits of the industry. By the early 1970s, the possible nationalization of the oil industry became the focus of debate among labor, businesses, professionals, government, and the public at large. Aware of the conflicts and subsequent difficulties of Mexico's sudden, dramatic nationalization of the entire oil industry in the 1930s, Venezuela pursued its acquisition of the petroleum sector cautiously and deliberately. In December 1974, a national commission created by President Pérez delivered a proposal for nationalization. This proposal formed the core of the 1975 law that nationalized the oil industry. The most controversial element of the new law was Article 5, which gave the government the authority to contract out to multinational firms for various technical services and marketing. Despite the controversy, Article 5 provided technical expertise that proved crucial to the industry's smooth transition to state control beginning on January 1, 1976.

In 1977 the government created a holding company, PDVSA, to serve as the umbrella organization for four major petroleum- producing affiliates. This process consolidated the holdings of fourteen foreign companies and one national company, the Venezuelan Petroleum Corporation (Corporación Venezolana de Petróleos--CVP), into four competing and largely autonomous subsidiaries. Industry analysts have credited the competitive structure of the subsidiaries with increasing overall efficiency to levels well above those of most nationalized companies. The largest subsidiary of PDVSA was Lagoven, which was composed mainly of the facilities previously operated by the United States oil company Exxon. Lagoven accounted for 40 percent of national output in 1976. From the holdings of British and Dutch Shell, PDVSA created a subsidiary called Maraven. Four smaller United States companies became Meneven. Finally, PDVSA consolidated six smaller foreign firms and the state oil company into Corpoven.

A slump in world oil prices beginning in 1981 rolled back the substantial revenues acquired, and largely squandered, during the 1970s. The symbolic end of PDVSA's prosperity came in 1982, when the Central Bank of Venezuela seized US$6 billion of the oil company's earnings to help offset the country's growing external debt problems. This action effectively eliminated PDVSA's autonomy. After oil prices dropped nearly 50 percent in 1986, the government accelerated industrial diversification programs in specialized petroleum refining, natural gas, petrochemicals, and mining, and also stepped up oil exploration efforts.

Exploration remained a major focus of PDVSA activities in the 1980s. At the time of nationalization in 1976, exploration efforts had come to a near standstill. Little exploratory activity took place during the 1960s and 1970s because the Venezuelan government did not grant any new oil concessions after 1958 and most foreign oil companies anticipated eventual nationalization. Although financial constraints slowed the pace of exploratory drilling in the 1980s, major new finds of light, medium, and heavy crude by 1986 nearly doubled proven reserves.

The country's 1989 oil reserves were expected to last for at least ninety-three years at prevailing rates of extraction. The Orinoco heavy oil belt accounted for 45 percent of proven reserves in 1989, followed by the Maracaibo region with 32 percent, the eastern Venezuelan basin with 22 percent, and 1 percent in other areas (see fig. 6). Only a small fraction of the Orinoco's total heavy oil deposits, however, were routinely included in estimates of total proven reserves because of the cost and difficulty of extraction. Some estimates of total recoverable heavy crude reserves ran as high as 190 to 200 billion barrels.

PDVSA's early exploration strategy emphasized heavy crude, but by the 1980s the company's efforts shifted toward more valuable light and medium grades. This approach proved successful, as major new discoveries were made in the Lago de Maracaibo area, the Apure-Barinas Basin in southwest Venezuela near the Colombian border, and in the eastern Venezuelan basin in the El Furrial/Musipán area in the state of Monagas. Encouraged by its finds in the mid-1980s, PDVSA launched further drilling operations in the late 1980s, with the goal of adding 14.4 billion barrels of light and medium crude to its proven reserves by 1993. In addition to its land-based drilling, PDVSA established an increasing number of offshore rigs. The Venezuelans also explored off the coast of Aruba and had discussed with the governments of Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, and Guatemala the prospects of exploratory drilling.

PDVSA not only extracted crude oil, but also refined and distributed a wide variety of petroleum products. In 1988 six active refineries in Venezuela boasted an installed refining capacity of approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil a day. These refineries produced a full range of oil products and specialty fuels, making Venezuela an international leader in petroleum refining (see table 9; table 10, Appendix). PDVSA increased the percentage of locally refined crude from 35 percent to 58 percent between 1979 and 1988. In 1988 the country for the first time exported more refined petroleum than crude. PDVSA diversified its production during the 1980s, increasing the share of petroleum products that fell outside OPEC quotas until the late 1980s, in an effort to enhance price stability and boost profits. Orinoco Asphalt (Bitúmenes del Orinoco), a PDVSA subsidiary, began preliminary shipments in the late 1980s of orimulsión, a uniquely Venezuelan synthetic fuel derived from Orinoco heavy crude, water, and chemical additives. PDVSA hoped to export increasing quantities of orimulsión, outside OPEC quotas, to Canada and Europe as a substitute for coal or fuel oils used by electric power stations.

From 1983 to 1989, PDVSA acquired overseas refining capacity from at least five multinational oil conglomerates, either through production contracts or outright purchases. For example, in 1983 PDVSA bought a 50 percent share of the West GermanApple LaserWriter Plus/IINT/IINTXAPLASPLU.PRSthe Swedish lubricant and asphalt producer, Nynas. Beginning in 1986, PDVSA entered the United States oil market by purchasing United States oil firms, refineries, and retail outlets previously held by Citgo, Champlin, and Unocal. PDVSA's overseas refining capacity exceeded 700,000 barrels per day by the close of the decade. By 1990, therefore, PDVSA had the capability to refine nearly all of its crude oil production, either at home or at Venezuelan-owned facilities overseas. Moreover, with PDVSA's purchase of Citgo in 1989, Venezuela became the first OPEC member to wholly own a major United States oil refinery.

The United States has consistently been Venezuela's leading oil export recipient. During the 1980s, however, PDVSA increased its exports to Central America and the Caribbean. In 1980 Venezuela and Mexico embarked on a joint program called the San José Accord, under which the two oil producers exported oil to many countries of the Caribbean Basin (see Glossary) region at concessionary rates. The accord set up a system of compensatory finance and purchases of Venezuelan goods in exchange for crude that amounted to a 20 percent discount on the world market price.

Data as of December 1990



BackgroundVenezuela was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Ecuador and New Granada, which became Colombia). For most of the first half of the 20th century, Venezuela was ruled by generally benevolent military strongmen, who promoted the oil industry and allowed for some social reforms. Democratically elected governments have held sway since 1959. Hugo CHAVEZ, president since 1999, seeks to implement his "21st Century Socialism," which purports to alleviate social ills while at the same time attacking globalization and undermining regional stability. Current concerns include: a weakening of democratic institutions, political polarization, a politicized military, drug-related violence along the Colombian border, increasing internal drug consumption, overdependence on the petroleum industry with its price fluctuations, and irresponsible mining operations that are endangering the rain forest and indigenous peoples.
LocationNorthern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, between Colombia and Guyana
Area(sq km)total: 912,050 sq km
land: 882,050 sq km
water: 30,000 sq km
Geographic coordinates8 00 N, 66 00 W
Land boundaries(km)total: 4,993 km
border countries: Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050 km, Guyana 743 km

Coastline(km)2,800 km

Climatetropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Elevation extremes(m)lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Pico Bolivar (La Columna) 5,007 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hydropower, diamonds
Land use(%)arable land: 2.85%
permanent crops: 0.88%
other: 96.27% (2005)

Irrigated land(sq km)5,750 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources(cu km)1,233.2 cu km (2000)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 8.37 cu km/yr (6%/7%/47%)
per capita: 313 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazardssubject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic droughts
Environment - current issuessewage pollution of Lago de Valencia; oil and urban pollution of Lago de Maracaibo; deforestation; soil degradation; urban and industrial pollution, especially along the Caribbean coast; threat to the rainforest ecosystem from irresponsible mining operations
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed but not ratified:: none of the selected agreements
Geography - noteon major sea and air routes linking North and South America; Angel Falls in the Guiana Highlands is the world's highest waterfall
Population26,814,843 (July 2009 est.)
Age structure(%)0-14 years: 30.5% (male 4,157,194/female 4,022,595)
15-64 years: 64.3% (male 8,480,872/female 8,754,620)
65 years and over: 5.2% (male 620,657/female 778,905) (2009 est.)
Median age(years)total: 25.5 years
male: 24.8 years
female: 26.2 years (2009 est.)
Population growth rate(%)1.508% (2009 est.)
Birth rate(births/1,000 population)20.61 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Death rate(deaths/1,000 population)5.12 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

Net migration rate(migrant(s)/1,000 population)-0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Urbanization(%)urban population: 93% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio(male(s)/female)at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Infant mortality rate(deaths/1,000 live births)total: 21.54 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 25.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth(years)total population: 73.61 years
male: 70.54 years
female: 76.83 years (2009 est.)

Total fertility rate(children born/woman)2.48 children born/woman (2009 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Venezuelan(s)
adjective: Venezuelan
Ethnic groups(%)Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Arab, German, African, indigenous people

Religions(%)nominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%, other 2%
Languages(%)Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects

Country nameconventional long form: Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
conventional short form: Venezuela
local long form: Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela
local short form: Venezuela
Government typefederal republic
Capitalname: Caracas
geographic coordinates: 10 30 N, 66 56 W
time difference: UTC-4.5 (half an hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions23 states (estados, singular - estado), 1 capital district* (distrito capital), and 1 federal dependency** (dependencia federal); Amazonas, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro, Dependencias Federales**, Distrito Federal*, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Vargas, Yaracuy, Zulia
note: the federal dependency consists of 11 federally controlled island groups with a total of 72 individual islands
Constitution30-Dec-99

Legal systemopen, adversarial court system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 February 1999); Executive Vice President Ramon Alonzo CARRIZALEZ Rengifo (since 4 January 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 February 1999); Executive Vice President Ramon Alonzo CARRIZALEZ Rengifo (since 4 January 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for unlimited reelection); election last held 3 December 2006 (next to be held in December 2012)
note: in 1999, a National Constituent Assembly drafted a new constitution that increased the presidential term to six years; an election was subsequently held on 30 July 2000 under the terms of this constitution; in 2009, a national referendum approved the elimination of term limits on all elected officials, including the presidency
election results: Hugo CHAVEZ Frias reelected president; percent of vote - Hugo CHAVEZ Frias 62.9%, Manuel ROSALES 36.9%
Legislative branchunicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (167 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; three seats reserved for the indigenous peoples of Venezuela)
elections: last held 4 December 2005 (next to be held in 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - pro-government 167 (MVR 114, PODEMOS 15, PPT 11, indigenous 2, other 25), opposition 0; total seats by party as of 16 December 2009 - pro-government 156 (PSUV 141, PPT 5, PCV 4, other 6), PODEMOS 6, FPH 5

Judicial branchSupreme Tribunal of Justice or Tribuna Suprema de Justicia (32 magistrates are elected by the National Assembly for a single 12-year term)

Political pressure groups and leadersFEDECAMARAS, a conservative business group; VECINOS groups; Venezuelan Confederation of Workers or CTV (labor organization dominated by the Democratic Action)
International organization participationCaricom (observer), CDB, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, PetroCaribe, RG, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue, and red with the coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of eight white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band

Economy - overviewVenezuela remains highly dependent on oil revenues, which account for roughly 90% of export earnings, about 50% of the federal budget revenues, and around 30% of GDP. A nationwide strike between December 2002 and February 2003 had far-reaching economic consequences - real GDP declined by around 9% in 2002 and 8% in 2003 - but economic output since then has recovered strongly. Fueled by high oil prices, record government spending helped to boost GDP by about 10% in 2006, 8% in 2007, and nearly 5% in 2008. This spending, combined with recent minimum wage hikes and improved access to domestic credit, has created a consumption boom but has come at the cost of higher inflation - roughly 20% in 2007 and more than 30% in 2008. Imports also have jumped significantly. Declining oil prices in the latter part of 2008 are expected to undermine the govenment's ability to continue the high rate of spending. President Hugo CHAVEZ in 2008 continued efforts to increase the government's contol of the economy by nationalizing firms in the cement and steel sectors. In 2007, he nationalized firms in the petroleum, communications, and electricity sectors. In July 2008, CHAVEZ implemented by decree a number of laws that further consolidate and centralize authority over the economy through his plan for "21st Century Socialism."
GDP (purchasing power parity)$356.3 billion (2008 est.)
$340 billion (2007 est.)
$314.2 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate)$319.4 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate(%)4.8% (2008 est.)
8.2% (2007 est.)
9.9% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$13,500 (2008 est.)
$13,100 (2007 est.)
$12,300 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector(%)agriculture: 3.8%
industry: 37.6%
services: 58.6% (2008 est.)
Labor force12.59 million (2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation(%)agriculture: 13%
industry: 23%
services: 64% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate(%)7.4% (2008 est.)
8.5% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line(%)37.9% (end 2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share(%)lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 32.7% (2006)
Distribution of family income - Gini index48.2 (2003)
49.5 (1998)
Investment (gross fixed)(% of GDP)19.7% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $94.14 billion
expenditures: $97.69 billion (2008 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)(%)30.4% (2008 est.)
18.7% (2007 est.)

Stock of money$79.91 billion (31 December 2008)
$63.18 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of quasi money$10.93 billion (31 December 2008)
$8.889 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of domestic credit$62.42 billion (31 December 2008)
$50.24 billion (31 December 2007)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA (31 December 2008)
$NA (31 December 2007)
$8.251 billion (31 December 2006)
Economic aid - recipient$48.66 million (2005)

Public debt(% of GDP)13.8% of GDP (2008 est.)
43.1% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - productscorn, sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas, vegetables, coffee; beef, pork, milk, eggs; fish
Industriespetroleum, construction materials, food processing, textiles; iron ore mining, steel, aluminum; motor vehicle assembly

Industrial production growth rate(%)2.5% (2008 est.)

Current account balance$39.21 billion (2008 est.)
$20 billion (2007 est.)
Exports$93.54 billion (2008 est.)
$69.17 billion (2007 est.)

Exports - commodities(%)petroleum, bauxite and aluminum, steel, chemicals, agricultural products, basic manufactures
Exports - partners(%)US 40.7%, Netherlands Antilles 7.8%, China 4.7% (2008)
Imports$48.1 billion (2008 est.)
$45.46 billion (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities(%)raw materials, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, construction materials
Imports - partners(%)US 26.3%, Colombia 12.7%, Brazil 10.3%, China 7%, Mexico 4.8% (2008)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$42.3 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$33.48 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external$47.03 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$43.33 billion (31 December 2007 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$41.38 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$43.96 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$16.62 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$13.81 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Exchange ratesbolivars (VEB) per US dollar - 2.147 (2008 est.), 2,147 (2007), 2,147 (2006), 2,089.8 (2005), 1,891.3 (2004)
note: on 1 January 2008 Venezuela revalued its currency with 1000 old bolivares equal to 1 new bolivar

Currency (code)bolivar (VEB)

Telephones - main lines in use6.304 million (2008)
Telephones - mobile cellular27.084 million (2008)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: modern and expanding
domestic: domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations; recent substantial improvement in telephone service in rural areas; substantial increase in digitalization of exchanges and trunk lines; installation of a national interurban fiber-optic network capable of digital multimedia services; combined fixed and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership 125 per 100 persons
international: country code - 58; submarine cable systems provide connectivity to the Caribbean, Central and South America, and US; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 PanAmSat; participating with Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia in the construction of an international fiber-optic network (2007)
Internet country code.ve
Internet users7.167 million (2008)
Airports406 (2009)
Pipelines(km)extra heavy crude 980 km; gas 5,036 km; oil 6,695 km; refined products 1,484 km; unknown 141 km (2008)
Roadways(km)total: 96,155 km
paved: 32,308 km
unpaved: 63,847 km (2002)

Ports and terminalsLa Guaira, Maracaibo, Puerto Cabello, Punta Cardon
Military branchesNational Bolivarian Armed Forces (Fuerza Armada Nacional Bolivariana, FANB): National Bolivarian Army (Ejercito Nacional Bolivariano, ENB), Bolivarian National Navy (Fuerza Armada Nacional Bolivariana (FANB); includes Naval Infantry, Coast Guard, Naval Aviation), Bolivarian National Military Aviation (Aviacion Militar Nacional Bolivariana, AMNB), Bolivarian National Guard (Guardia Nacional Bolivaria, GNB), Bolivarian National Militia (Milicia Nacional Bolivariana, MNB) (2009)
Military service age and obligation(years of age)18-30 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; 30-month conscript service obligation; all citizens 18-50 years old are obligated to register for military service (2008)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 6,647,124
females age 16-49: 6,801,133 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 5,391,582
females age 16-49: 5,873,563 (2009 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 276,051
female: 274,162 (2009 est.)
Military expenditures(% of GDP)1.2% of GDP (2005 est.)
Disputes - internationalclaims all of the area west of the Essequibo River in Guyana, preventing any discussion of a maritime boundary; Guyana has expressed its intention to join Barbados in asserting claims before the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) that Trinidad and Tobago's maritime boundary with Venezuela extends into their waters; dispute with Colombia over maritime boundary and Venezuelan-administered Los Monjes islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Venezuela's shared border region; in 2006, an estimated 139,000 Colombians sought protection in 150 communities along the border in Venezuela; US, France, and the Netherlands recognize Venezuela's granting full effect to Aves Island, thereby claiming a Venezuelan EEZ/continental shelf extending over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea; Dominica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines protest Venezuela's full effect claim

Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Venezuela is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor; Venezuelan women and girls are trafficked within the country for sexual exploitation, lured from the nation's interior to urban and tourist areas; child prostitution in urban areas and child sex tourism in resort destinations appear to be growing; Venezuelan women and girls are trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation to Western Europe, Mexico, and Caribbean destinations
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Venezuela is placed on the Tier 2 Watch List, up from Tier 3, as it showed greater resolve to address trafficking through law enforcement measures and prevention efforts in 2007, although stringent punishment of offenders and victim assistance remain lacking (2008)
Electricity - production(kWh)113.3 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - production by source(%)fossil fuel: 31.7%
hydro: 68.3%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption(kWh)83.02 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - exports(kWh)540 million kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports(kWh)1.651 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production(bbl/day)2.643 million bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - consumption(bbl/day)760,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - exports(bbl/day)2.182 million bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - imports(bbl/day)0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - proved reserves(bbl)99.38 billion bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
Natural gas - production(cu m)24.01 billion cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - consumption(cu m)25.51 billion cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - exports(cu m)0 cu m (2008)
Natural gas - proved reserves(cu m)4.84 trillion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate(%)0.7%; note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS110,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths4,100 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne disease: dengue fever and malaria (2009)
Literacy(%)definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93%
male: 93.3%
female: 92.7% (2001 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)(years)total: 12 years
male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2003)
Education expenditures(% of GDP)3.7% of GDP (2006)








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