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Turkey Index

In early 1995, Turkey's most important international relationship was with the United States. Turkey's association with the United States began in 1947 when the United States Congress designated Turkey, under the provisions of the Truman Doctrine, as the recipient of special economic and military assistance intended to help it resist threats from the Soviet Union (see Politics and Foreign Relations in the 1960s, ch. 1). A mutual interest in containing Soviet expansion provided the foundation of United States-Turkish relations for the next forty years. In support of overall United States Cold War strategy, Turkey contributed personnel to the UN forces in the Korean War (1950-53), joined NATO in 1952, became a founding member of the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) collective defense pact established in 1955, and endorsed the principles of the 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, Turkey generally cooperated with other United States allies in the Middle East (Iran, Israel, and Jordan) to contain the influence of those countries (Egypt, Iraq, and Syria) regarded as Soviet clients.

The general tendency for relationships between nations to experience strain in the wake of domestic and international political changes has proved to be the rule for Turkey and the United States. The most difficult period in their relationship followed Turkey's invasion of northern Cyprus in 1974. In response to the military intervention, the United States halted arms supplies to Turkey. Ankara retaliated by suspending United States military operations at all Turkish installations that were not clearly connected with NATO missions. The Cyprus issue affected United States-Turkish relations for several years. Even after the United States Congress lifted the arms embargo in 1978, two years passed before bilateral defense cooperation and military assistance were restored to their 1974 level.

During the 1980s, relations between Turkey and the United States gradually recovered the closeness of earlier years. Although Ankara resented continued attempts by the United States Congress to restrict military assistance to Turkey because of Cyprus and to introduce congressional resolutions condemning the 1915-16 massacre of Armenians, the Özal government generally perceived the administrations of President Ronald Reagan and President George H.W. Bush as sympathetic to Turkish interests. For example, Washington demonstrated its support of Özal's market-oriented economic policies and efforts to open the Turkish economy to international trade by pushing for acceptance of an International Monetary Fund (IMF--see Glossary) program to provide economic assistance to Turkey. Furthermore, the United States, unlike European countries, did not persistently and publicly criticize Turkey over allegations of human rights violations. Also, the United States did not pressure Özal on the Kurdish problem, another issue that seemed to preoccupy the Europeans. By 1989 the United States had recovered a generally positive image among the Turkish political elite.

The end of the Cold War forced Turkish leaders to reassess their country's international position. The disappearance of the Soviet threat and the perception of being excluded from Europe have created a sense of vulnerability with respect to Turkey's position in the fast-changing global political environment. Özal believed Turkey's future security depended on the continuation of a strong relationship with the United States. For that reason, he supported the United States position during the Persian Gulf War, although Turkey's economic ties to Iraq were extensive and their disruption hurt the country. After the war, he continued to support major United States initiatives in the region, including the creation of a no-fly zone over northern Iraq, the Arab-Israeli peace process, and expanded ties with the Central Asian members of the CIS. Özal's pro-United States policy was not accepted by all Turks. United States use of Turkish military installations during the bombing of Iraq in 1991 led to antiwar demonstrations in several cities, and sporadic attacks on United States facilities continued in 1992 and 1993. Nevertheless, among Turkey's political elite a consensus had emerged by January 1995 that Turkey's security depended on remaining a strategic ally of the United States. For that reason, both the Demirel and Çiller governments undertook efforts to cultivate relations with the administrations of presidents George H.W. Bush and William J. Clinton.

*          *          *

George S. Harris analyzes Turkey's governmental framework, political dynamics, and foreign policy from both historical and contemporary perspectives in Turkey: Coping with Crisis . Frank Tachau describes the tension among authoritarianism, democracy, and economic development in Turkey: The Politics of Authority, Democracy, and Development . Insight into the breakdown of Turkish democracy and the framing of a new constitution is provided in Clement H. Dodd's The Crisis of Turkish Democracy and in Lucille W. Pevsner's Turkey's Political Crisis .

Religion and religious movements in contemporary Turkey are examined in Religion and Social Change in Modern Turkey , by Serif A. Mardin, and in a volume edited by Richard Tapper, Islam in Modern Turkey: Religion, Politics, and Literature in a Secular State . Information on patterns of political participation through specialized associations can be obtained from Robert Bianchi's detailed study, Interest Groups and Political Development in Turkey . David Barchard examines aspects of Turkey's foreign policy in Turkey and the West . The complicated relationship between Turkey and Greece and it simplications for the United States are examined in Theodore A. Couloumbis's The United States, Greece, and Turkey and Monteagle Stearns's Entangled Allies: United States Policy Toward Greece, Turkey, and Cyprus . (For further information and complete citations, see Bibliography.)

Data as of January 1995

BackgroundModern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the People's Congress of Kurdistan or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives. After the capture of the group's leader in 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turkey mainly to northern Iraq. In 2004, KGK announced an end to its ceasefire and attacks attributed to the KGK increased. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO; it holds a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council from 2009-10. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community. Over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy; it began accession membership talks with the European Union in 2005.
LocationSoutheastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
Area(sq km)total: 783,562 sq km
land: 769,632 sq km
water: 13,930 sq km
Geographic coordinates39 00 N, 35 00 E
Land boundaries(km)total: 2,648 km
border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km

Coastline(km)7,200 km

Climatetemperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

Elevation extremes(m)lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m
Natural resourcescoal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
Land use(%)arable land: 29.81%
permanent crops: 3.39%
other: 66.8% (2005)

Irrigated land(sq km)52,150 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources(cu km)234 cu km (2003)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 39.78 cu km/yr (15%/11%/74%)
per capita: 544 cu m/yr (2001)
Natural hazardssevere earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
Environment - current issueswater pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography - notestrategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country
Population76,805,524 (July 2009 est.)
Age structure(%)0-14 years: 27.2% (male 10,701,631/female 10,223,260)
15-64 years: 66.7% (male 25,896,326/female 25,327,403)
65 years and over: 6.1% (male 2,130,360/female 2,526,544) (2009 est.)
Median age(years)total: 27.7 years
male: 27.4 years
female: 28.1 years (2009 est.)
Population growth rate(%)1.312% (2009 est.)
Birth rate(births/1,000 population)18.66 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Death rate(deaths/1,000 population)6.1 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

Net migration rate(migrant(s)/1,000 population)0.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Urbanization(%)urban population: 69% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 1.9% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio(male(s)/female)at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Infant mortality rate(deaths/1,000 live births)total: 25.78 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 26.84 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 24.67 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth(years)total population: 71.96 years
male: 70.12 years
female: 73.89 years (2009 est.)

Total fertility rate(children born/woman)2.21 children born/woman (2009 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish
Ethnic groups(%)Turkish 70-75%, Kurdish 18%, other minorities 7-12% (2008 est.)

Religions(%)Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
Languages(%)Turkish (official), Kurdish, other minority languages

Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Turkey
conventional short form: Turkey
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Turkiye
Government typerepublican parliamentary democracy
Capitalname: Ankara
geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions81 provinces (iller, singular - ili); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin (Icel), Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
Constitution7 November 1982; amended 17 May 1987, 1995, 2001, and 2007; note - amendment passed by referendum concerning presidential elections on 21 October 2007

Legal systemcivil law system derived from various European continental legal systems; note - member of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), although Turkey claims limited derogations on the ratified European Convention on Human Rights; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Abdullah GUL (since 28 August 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 14 March 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Cemil CICEK (since 29 August 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Ali BABACAN (since 1 May 2009); Deputy Prime Minister Bulent ARINC (since 1 May 2009)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
elections: president elected directly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament
election results: on 28 August 2007 the National Assembly elected Abdullah GUL president on the third ballot; National Assembly vote - 339
note: in October 2007 Turkish voters approved a referendum package of constitutional amendments including a provision for direct presidential elections
Legislative branchunicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 22 July 2007 (next to be held in November 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 46.7%, CHP 20.8%, MHP 14.3%, independents 5.2%, and other 13.0%; seats by party - AKP 341, CHP 112, MHP 71, independents 26; note - seats by party as of 31 January 2009 - AKP 340, CHP 97, MHP 70, DTP 21, DSP 13, ODP 1, BBP 1, independents 5, vacant 2 (DTP entered parliament as independents; DSP entered parliament on CHP's party list); only parties surpassing the 10% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats

Judicial branchConstitutional Court; High Court of Appeals (Yargitay); Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court

Political pressure groups and leadersConfederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Sami EVREN]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Suleyman CELEBI]; Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Omer Cihad VARDAN]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Salim USLU]; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Tugurl KUDATGOBILIK]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Mustafa KUMLU]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Dervis GUNDAY]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Arzuhan Dogan YALCINDAG]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CERN (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (applicant), FAO, G-20, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURCAT, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SECI, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Flag descriptionred with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening

Economy - overviewTurkey's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector that still accounts for about 30% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state remains a major participant in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. The largest industrial sector is textiles and clothing, which accounts for one-third of industrial employment; it faces stiff competition in international markets with the end of the global quota system. However, other sectors, notably the automotive and electronics industries, are rising in importance within Turkey's export mix. Real GDP growth has exceeded 6% in many years, but this strong expansion has been interrupted by sharp declines in output in 1994, 1999, and 2001. Due to global contractions, annual growth is estimated to have fallen to 1.1% in 2008. Inflation fell to 7.7% in 2005 - a 30-year low - but climbed to over 10% in 2008. Despite the strong economic gains from 2002-07, which were largely due to renewed investor interest in emerging markets, IMF backing, and tighter fiscal policy, the economy is still burdened by a high current account deficit and high external debt. Further economic and judicial reforms and prospective EU membership are expected to boost foreign direct investment. The stock value of FDI stood at nearly $130 billion at year-end 2008. Privatization sales are currently approaching $21 billion. Oil began to flow through the Baku-Tblisi-Ceyhan pipeline in May 2006, marking a major milestone that will bring up to 1 million barrels per day from the Caspian to market. In 2007 and 2008, Turkish financial markets weathered significant domestic political turmoil, including turbulence sparked by controversy over the selection of former Foreign Minister Abdullah GUL as Turkey's 11th president and the possible closure of the Justice and Development Party (AKP). Economic fundamentals are sound, marked by moderate economic growth and foreign direct investment. Nevertheless, the Turkish economy may be faced with more negative economic indicators in 2009 as a result of the global economic slowdown. In addition, Turkey's high current account deficit leaves the economy vulnerable to destabilizing shifts in investor confidence.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$903.9 billion (2008 est.)
$895.8 billion (2007 est.)
$855.6 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate)$730 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate(%)0.9% (2008 est.)
4.7% (2007 est.)
6.9% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$11,900 (2008 est.)
$12,000 (2007 est.)
$11,600 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector(%)agriculture: 8.8%
industry: 27.5%
services: 63.8% (2008 est.)
Labor force24.06 million
note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation(%)agriculture: 29.5%
industry: 24.7%
services: 45.8% (2005)
Unemployment rate(%)11% (2008 est.)
9.9% (2007 est.)
note: underemployment amounted to 4% in 2008
Population below poverty line(%)20% (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share(%)lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 33.2% (2005)
Distribution of family income - Gini index43.6 (2003)
Investment (gross fixed)(% of GDP)20.3% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $160.5 billion
expenditures: $173.6 billion (2008 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)(%)10.4% (2008 est.)
8.7% (2007 est.)

Stock of money$53.25 billion (31 December 2008)
$63.88 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of quasi money$248.4 billion (31 December 2008)
$252.1 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of domestic credit$326.4 billion (31 December 2008)
$355 billion (31 December 2007)
Market value of publicly traded shares$117.9 billion (31 December 2008)
$286.6 billion (31 December 2007)
$162.4 billion (31 December 2006)
Economic aid - recipientODA, $464 million (2005)

Public debt(% of GDP)40% of GDP (2008 est.)
74.3% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - productstobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, hazelnuts, pulse, citrus; livestock
Industriestextiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

Industrial production growth rate(%)-0.6% (2008 est.)

Current account balance-$41.69 billion (2008 est.)
-$37.7 billion (2007 est.)
Exports$140.7 billion (2008 est.)
$115.4 billion (2007 est.)

Exports - commodities(%)apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
Exports - partners(%)Germany 9.8%, UK 6.2%, UAE 6%, Italy 5.9%, France 5%, Russia 4.9% (2008)
Imports$193.9 billion (2008 est.)
$162 billion (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities(%)machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
Imports - partners(%)Russia 15.5%, Germany 9.3%, China 7.8%, US 5.9%, Italy 5.5%, France 4.5%, Iran 4.1% (2008)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$73.66 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$76.51 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external$278.1 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$249.4 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$128.7 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$110.5 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$14.8 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$10.97 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Exchange ratesTurkish liras (TRY) per US dollar - 1.3179 (2008 est.), 1.319 (2007), 1.4286 (2006), 1.3436 (2005), 1.4255 (2004)
note: on 1 January 2005, the old Turkish lira (TRL) was converted to new Turkish lira (TRY) at a rate of 1,000,000 old to 1 new Turkish lira; on 1 January 2009, the Turkish government dropped the word "new" and the currency is now called simply the Turkish lira

Currency (code)Turkish lira (TRY); old Turkish lira (TRL) before 1 January 2005

Telephones - main lines in use17.502 million (2008)
Telephones - mobile cellular65.824 million (2008)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: comprehensive telecommunications network undergoing rapid modernization and expansion especially in mobile-cellular services
domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; the number of subscribers to mobile-cellular telephone service is growing rapidly
international: country code - 90; international service is provided by the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable and by submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas that link Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002)
Internet country code.tr
Internet users24.483 million (2008)
Airports102 (2009)
Pipelines(km)gas 7,555 km; oil 3,636 km (2008)
Roadways(km)total: 426,951 km (includes 1,987 km of expressways) (2006)

Ports and terminalsAliaga, Diliskelesi, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Mercin Limani, Nemrut Limani
Military branchesTurkish Armed Forces (TSK): Turkish Land Forces (Turk Kara Kuvvetleri), Turkish Naval Forces (Turk Deniz Kuvvetleri; includes naval air and naval infantry), Turkish Air Force (Turk Hava Kuvvetleri) (2009)
Military service age and obligation(years of age)20 years of age (2004)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 20,213,205
females age 16-49: 19,432,688 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 17,223,506
females age 16-49: 16,995,299 (2009 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 692,592
female: 663,689 (2009 est.)
Military expenditures(% of GDP)5.3% of GDP (2005 est.)
Military - notea "National Security Policy Document" adopted in October 2005 increases the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) role in internal security, augmenting the General Directorate of Security and Gendarmerie General Command (Jandarma); the TSK leadership continues to play a key role in politics and considers itself guardian of Turkey's secular state; in April 2007, it warned the ruling party about any pro-Islamic appointments; despite on-going negotiations on EU accession since October 2005, progress has been limited in establishing required civilian supremacy over the military; primary domestic threats are listed as fundamentalism (with the definition in some dispute with the civilian government), separatism (the Kurdish problem), and the extreme left wing; Ankara strongly opposed establishment of an autonomous Kurdish region; an overhaul of the Turkish Land Forces Command (TLFC) taking place under the "Force 2014" program is to produce 20-30% smaller, more highly trained forces characterized by greater mobility and firepower and capable of joint and combined operations; the TLFC has taken on increasing international peacekeeping responsibilities, and took charge of a NATO International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) command in Afghanistan in April 2007; the Turkish Navy is a regional naval power that wants to develop the capability to project power beyond Turkey's coastal waters; the Navy is heavily involved in NATO, multinational, and UN operations; its roles include control of territorial waters and security for sea lines of communications; the Turkish Air Force adopted an "Aerospace and Missile Defense Concept" in 2002 and has initiated project work on an integrated missile defense system; Air Force priorities include attaining a modern deployable, survivable, and sustainable force structure, and establishing a sustainable command and control system (2008)
Disputes - internationalcomplex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; status of north Cyprus question remains; Syria and Iraq protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; border with Armenia remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh

Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 1-1.2 million (fighting 1984-99 between Kurdish PKK and Turkish military; most IDPs in southeastern provinces) (2007)
Electricity - production(kWh)181.9 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - production by source(%)fossil fuel: 79.3%
hydro: 20.4%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0.3% (2001)
Electricity - consumption(kWh)153.7 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - exports(kWh)1.063 billion kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports(kWh)790 million kWh (2008 est.)
Oil - production(bbl/day)46,120 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - consumption(bbl/day)675,500 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - exports(bbl/day)141,700 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - imports(bbl/day)783,800 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - proved reserves(bbl)300 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
Natural gas - production(cu m)1.013 billion cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - consumption(cu m)37.18 billion cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - exports(cu m)435 million cu m (2008)
Natural gas - proved reserves(cu m)8.495 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate(%)less than 0.1%; note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
Literacy(%)definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.4%
male: 95.3%
female: 79.6% (2004 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)(years)total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2006)
Education expenditures(% of GDP)4% of GDP (2004)

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