About  |   Contact  |  Mongabay on Facebook  |  Mongabay on Twitter  |  Subscribe
Rainforests | Tropical fish | Environmental news | For kids | Madagascar | Photos

Portugal-Women





MONGABAY.COM
Mongabay.com seeks to raise interest in and appreciation of wild lands and wildlife, while examining the impact of emerging trends in climate, technology, economics, and finance on conservation and development (more)







WEEKLY NEWSLETTER
Email:


Portugal Index

Portuguese women gained full legal equality with men relatively recently. Until the reforms made possible by the Revolution of 1974, Portuguese women had notably fewer political, economic, or personal rights than the women of other European countries. In family matters, they were subordinate to their husbands, having to defer to male decisions about how the children should be reared and educated. It was only in 1969 that all married women obtained the right to obtain a passport or leave Portugal without their husbands' consent. The constitution of 1976 guaranteed Portuguese women full equality for the first time in Portuguese history. However, this equality was not attained through steady progress, but rather after reverses and defeats.

For centuries, Portuguese women were obliged by law and custom to be subservient to men. Women had few rights of either a legal or financial nature and were forced to rely on the benevolence of their male relatives. Late in the nineteenth century and early in the twentieth century, some educated persons saw the need for women's equality and emancipation. A small Portuguese suffragette movement formed, and some young women began to receive higher educations. Shortly after the proclamation of the First Republic in the fall of 1910, laws were enacted establishing legal equality in marriage, requiring civil marriages, freeing women of the obligation to remain with their husbands, and permitting divorce. However, women were still not allowed to manage property or to vote.

Salazar's Estado Novo meant the end to these advances. The constitution of 1933 proclaimed everyone equal before the law "except for women, the differences resulting from their nature and for the good of the family." Although the regime allowed women with a secondary education to vote (men needed only to read and write), it once again obliged women to remain with their husbands. The Concordat of 1940 between the Portuguese government and the Roman Catholic Church gave legal validity to marriages within the church and forbade divorce in such marriages. Later amendments to the civil code, even in the 1960s, cemented the husband's dominance in marriage.

The constitution of 1976 brought Portuguese women full legal equality. Anyone eighteen or over was granted the right to vote, and full equality in marriage was guaranteed. A state entity, the Commission on the Status of Women, was established and from 1977 on was attached to the prime minister's office. Its task was to improve the position of women in Portugal and to oversee the protection of their rights. This entity was renamed the Commission for Equality and Women's Rights (Comissão para a Igualdade e Direitos das Mulheres) in 1991.

The position of women improved as a result of these legal reforms. By the early 1990s, women were prominent in many professions. Thirty-seven percent of all physicians were women, as were many lawyers. Slightly more than half of those enrolled in higher education were women. Working-class women also made gains. A modernizing economy meant that many women could find employment in offices and factories and that they had a better standard of living than their mothers.

Despite these significant gains, however, Portuguese women still had not achieved full social and economic equality. They remained underrepresented in most upper-level positions, whether public or private. Women usually held less than 10 percent of the seats in the country's parliament. Women were also rarely cabinet members or judges. In the main trade unions, women's occupancy of leadership positions was proportionally only half their total union membership, and, on the whole, working-class women earned less than their male counterparts.

Data as of January 1993



BackgroundFollowing its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of its wealthiest colony of Brazil in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.
LocationSouthwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain
Area(sq km)total: 92,090 sq km
land: 91,470 sq km
water: 620 sq km
note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands
Geographic coordinates39 30 N, 8 00 W
Land boundaries(km)total: 1,214 km
border countries: Spain 1,214 km

Coastline(km)1,793 km

Climatemaritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

Elevation extremes(m)lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m
Natural resourcesfish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land use(%)arable land: 17.29%
permanent crops: 7.84%
other: 74.87% (2005)

Irrigated land(sq km)6,500 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources(cu km)73.6 cu km (2005)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 11.09 cu km/yr (10%/12%/78%)
per capita: 1,056 cu m/yr (1998)
Natural hazardsAzores subject to severe earthquakes
Environment - current issuessoil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification
Geography - noteAzores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar
Population10,707,924 (July 2009 est.)
Age structure(%)0-14 years: 16.3% (male 912,147/female 834,941)
15-64 years: 66.1% (male 3,525,717/female 3,554,513)
65 years and over: 17.6% (male 772,413/female 1,108,193) (2009 est.)
Median age(years)total: 39.4 years
male: 37.3 years
female: 41.6 years (2009 est.)
Population growth rate(%)0.275% (2009 est.)
Birth rate(births/1,000 population)10.29 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Death rate(deaths/1,000 population)10.68 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

Net migration rate(migrant(s)/1,000 population)3.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Urbanization(%)urban population: 59% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 1.4% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio(male(s)/female)at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Infant mortality rate(deaths/1,000 live births)total: 4.78 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.24 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth(years)total population: 78.21 years
male: 74.95 years
female: 81.69 years (2009 est.)

Total fertility rate(children born/woman)1.49 children born/woman (2009 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
adjective: Portuguese
Ethnic groups(%)homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal

Religions(%)Roman Catholic 84.5%, other Christian 2.2%, other 0.3%, unknown 9%, none 3.9% (2001 census)
Languages(%)Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official - but locally used)

Country nameconventional long form: Portuguese Republic
conventional short form: Portugal
local long form: Republica Portuguesa
local short form: Portugal
Government typerepublic; parliamentary democracy
Capitalname: Lisbon
geographic coordinates: 38 43 N, 9 08 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu
Constitutionadopted 2 April 1976; subsequently revised
note: the revisions placed the military under strict civilian control, trimmed the powers of the president, and laid the groundwork for a stable, pluralistic liberal democracy; and they allowed for the privatization of nationalized firms and the government-owned communications media

Legal systembased on civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 9 March 2006)
head of government: Prime Minister Jose SOCRATES Carvalho Pinto de Sousa (since 12 March 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 22 January 2006 (next to be held in January 2011); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Anibal CAVACO SILVA elected president; percent of vote - Anibal CAVACO SILVA 50.6%, Manuel ALEGRE 20.7%, Mario Alberto Nobre Lopes SOARES 14.3%, Jeronimo DE SOUSA 8.5%, Franciso LOUCA 5.3%
Legislative branchunicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 27 September 2009 (next to be held in fall 2013)
election results: percent of vote by party - PS 42%, PSD 35%, CDS/PP 9%, BE 7%, CDU 7%; seats by party - PS 97, PSD 81, CDS/PP 21, BE 16, CDU 15

Judicial branchSupreme Court (Supremo Tribunal de Justica); judges appointed for life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura

Political pressure groups and leadersthe media; labor unions
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club (associate), PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMIT, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Flag descriptiontwo vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the dividing line

Economy - overviewPortugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community in 1986. Over the past two decades, successive governments have privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country qualified for the European Monetary Union (EMU) in 1998 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU member economies. Economic growth had been above the EU average for much of the 1990s, but fell back in 2001-08. GDP per capita stands at roughly two-thirds of the EU-27 average. A poor educational system, in particular, has been an obstacle to greater productivity and growth. Portugal has been increasingly overshadowed by lower-cost producers in Central Europe and Asia as a target for foreign direct investment. The budget deficit surged to an all-time high of 6% of GDP in 2005, but the government reduced the deficit to 2.6% in 2007 - a year ahead of Portugal's targeted schedule. Nonetheless, the government faces tough choices in its attempts to boost the economy, which declined 0.1% in 2008, while keeping the budget deficit within the euro-zone 3%-of-GDP ceiling.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$237.3 billion (2008 est.)
$237.3 billion (2007 est.)
$232.9 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate)$244.6 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate(%)0% (2008 est.)
1.9% (2007 est.)
1.4% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$22,200 (2008 est.)
$22,300 (2007 est.)
$22,000 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector(%)agriculture: 2.8%
industry: 25%
services: 72.2% (2008 est.)
Labor force5.625 million (2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation(%)agriculture: 10%
industry: 30%
services: 60% (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate(%)7.6% (2008 est.)
8% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line(%)18% (2006)
Household income or consumption by percentage share(%)lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 28.4% (1995 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index38.5 (2007)
35.6 (1995)
Investment (gross fixed)(% of GDP)21.7% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $105.5 billion
expenditures: $111.9 billion (2008 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)(%)2.6% (2008 est.)
2.4% (2007 est.)

Stock of money$NAnote: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 16 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money and quasi money circulating within their own borders
Stock of quasi money$NA
Stock of domestic credit$491 billion (31 December 2008)
$412.7 billion (31 December 2007)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA (31 December 2008)
$132.3 billion (31 December 2007)
$104.2 billion (31 December 2006)
Public debt(% of GDP)66.4% of GDP (2008 est.)
61.5% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - productsgrain, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, swine, poultry, dairy products; fish
Industriestextiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper, chemicals, auto-parts manufacturing, base metals, diary products, wine and other foods, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism

Industrial production growth rate(%)-2.2% (2008 est.)

Current account balance-$29.6 billion (2008 est.)
-$21.18 billion (2007 est.)
Exports$56.42 billion (2008 est.)
$51.81 billion (2007 est.)

Exports - commodities(%)agricultural products, food products, oil products, chemical products, plastics and rubber, skins and leather, wood and cork, wood pulp and paper, textile materials, clothing, footwear, minerals and mineral products, base metals, machinery and tools, vehicles and other transport material, and optical and precision instruments
Exports - partners(%)Spain 25.7%, Germany 12.7%, France 11.1%, Angola 5.9%, UK 5.3% (2008)
Imports$87.83 billion (2008 est.)
$75.98 billion (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities(%)agricultural products, food products, oil products, chemical products, plastics and rubber, skins and leather, wood and cork, wood pulp and paper, textile materials, clothing, footwear, minerals and mineral products, base metals, machinery and tools, vehicles and other transport material, and optical and precision instruments, computer accessories and parts, semi-conductors and related devices, household goods, passenger cars new and used, and wine products
Imports - partners(%)Spain 28.9%, Germany 11.6%, France 8%, Italy 4.9%, Netherlands 4.4% (2008)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$11.95 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$11.55 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external$484.7 billion (31 December 2008)
$483.9 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$117.8 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$114.2 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$69.24 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$69.24 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Exchange rateseuros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.6827 (2008 est.), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004)

Currency (code)euro (EUR)

Telephones - main lines in use4.121 million (2008)
Telephones - mobile cellular14.91 million (2008)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: Portugal's telephone system has a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities
domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations
international: country code - 351; a combination of submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, North and East Africa, South Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores (2008)
Internet country code.pt
Internet users4.476 million (2008)
Airports65 (2009)
Pipelines(km)gas 1,098 km; oil 11 km; refined products 188 km (2008)
Roadways(km)total: 82,900 km
paved: 71,294 km (includes 2,300 km of expressways)
unpaved: 11,606 km (2005)

Ports and terminalsLeixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines
Military branchesPortuguese Army (Exercito Portugues), Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps), Portuguese Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP) (2009)
Military service age and obligation(years of age)18 years of age for voluntary military service; compulsory military service ended in 2004; women serve in the armed forces, on naval ships since 1993, but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties; reserve obligation to age 35 (2007)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 2,573,913
females age 16-49: 2,498,262 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 2,103,558
females age 16-49: 2,049,032 (2009 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 64,047
female: 57,630 (2009 est.)
Military expenditures(% of GDP)2.3% of GDP (2005 est.)
Disputes - internationalPortugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz

Electricity - production(kWh)44.47 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - production by source(%)fossil fuel: 64.5%
hydro: 31.3%
nuclear: 0%
other: 4.1% (2001)
Electricity - consumption(kWh)48.78 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - exports(kWh)1.313 billion kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports(kWh)10.74 billion kWh (2008 est.)
Oil - production(bbl/day)7,861 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - consumption(bbl/day)291,700 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - exports(bbl/day)53,260 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - imports(bbl/day)351,100 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Economic aid - donorODA, $396 million (2006)

Oil - proved reserves(bbl)0 bbl
Natural gas - production(cu m)0 cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - consumption(cu m)4.754 billion cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - exports(cu m)0 cu m (2008)
Natural gas - proved reserves(cu m)0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate(%)0.5% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS34,000 (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsfewer than 500 (2007 est.)
Literacy(%)definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.3%
male: 95.5%
female: 91.3% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)(years)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2006)
Education expenditures(% of GDP)5.5% of GDP (2005)








Copyright mongabay 2000-2013