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Philippines-A Collaborative Philippine Leadership





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The most important step in establishing a new political system was the successful coaptation of the Filipino elite--called the "policy of attraction." Wealthy and conservative ilustrados, the self-described "oligarchy of intelligence," had been from the outset reluctant revolutionaries, suspicious of the Katipunan and willing to negotiate with either Spain or the United States. Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera, a descendant of Spanish nobility, and Benito Legarda, a rich landowner and capitalist, had quit Aguinaldo's government in 1898 as a result of disagreements with Mabini. Subsequently, they worked closely with the Schurman and Taft commissions, advocating acceptance of United States rule.

In December 1900, de Tavera and Legarda established the Federalista Party, advocating statehood for the islands. In the following year they were appointed the first Filipino members of the Philippine Commission of the legislature. In such an advantageous position, they were able to bring influence to bear to achieve the appointment of Federalistas to provincial governorships, the Supreme Court, and top positions in the civil service. Although the party boasted a membership of 200,000 by May 1901, its proposal to make the islands a state of the United States had limited appeal, both in the islands and in the United States, and the party was widely regarded as being opportunistic. In 1905 the party revised its program over the objections of its leaders, calling for "ultimate independence" and changing its name to the National Progressive Party (Partido Nacional Progresista).

The Nacionalista Party, established in 1907, dominated the Philippine political process until after World War II. It was led by a new generation of politicians, although they were not ilustrados and were by no means radical. One of the leaders, Manuel Quezon, came from a family of moderate wealth. An officer in Aguinaldo's army, he studied law, passed his bar examination in 1903, and entered provincial politics, becoming governor of Tayabas in 1906 before being elected to the Philippine Assembly the following year. His success at an early age was attributable to consummate political skills and the support of influential Americans. His Nacionalista Party associate and sometime rival was Sergio Osmeña, the college-educated son of a shopkeeper, who had worked as a journalist. The former journalist's thoroughness and command of detail made him a perfect complement to Quezon. Like Quezon, Osmeña had served as a provincial governor (in his home province of Cebu) before being elected in 1907 to the assembly and, at age twenty-nine, selected as its first speaker.

Although the Nacionalista Party's platform at its founding called for "immediate independence," American observers believed that Osmeña and Quezon used this appeal only to get votes. In fact, their policy toward the Americans was highly accommodating. In 1907 an understanding was reached with an American official that the two leaders would block any attempt by the Philippine Assembly to demand independence. Osmeña and Quezon, who were the dominant political figures in the islands up to World War II, were genuinely committed to independence. The failure of Aguinaldo's revolutionary movement, however, had taught them the pragmatism of adopting a conciliatory policy.

The appearance of the Nacionalista Party in 1907 marked the emergence of the party system, although the party was without an effective rival from 1916 for most of the period until the emergence of the Liberal Party in 1946. Much of the system's success (or, rather, the success of the Nacionalistas) depended on the linkage of modern political institutions with traditional social structures and practices. Most significantly, it involved the integration of local-level elite groups into the new political system. Philippine parties have been described by political scientist Carl Landé as organized "upward" rather than "downward." That is, national followings were put together by party leaders who worked in conjunction with local elite groups--in many cases the descendants of the principalía of Spanish times--who controlled constituencies tied to them in patron-client relationships. The issue of independence, and the conditions and timing under which it would be granted, generated considerable passion in the national political arena. According to Landé, however, the decisive factors in terms of popular support were more often local and particularistic issues rather than national or ideological concerns. Filipino political associations depended on intricate networks of personalistic ties, directed upward to Manila and the national legislature.

The linchpins of the system created under United States tutelage were the village- and province-level notables--often labeled bosses or caciques by colonial administrators--who garnered support by exchanging specific favors for votes. Reciprocal relations between inferior and superior (most often tenants or sharecroppers with large landholders) usually involved the concept of utang na loob (repayment of debts) or kinship ties, and they formed the basis of support for village-level factions led by the notables (see The Social Values and Organization , ch. 2). These factions decided political party allegiance. The extension of voting rights to all literate males in 1916, the growth of literacy, and the granting of women's suffrage in 1938 increased the electorate considerably. The elite, however, was largely successful in monopolizing the support of the newly enfranchised, and a genuinely populist alternative to the status quo was never really established.

The policy of attraction ensured the success of what colonial administrators called the political education of the Filipinos. It was, however, also the cause of its greatest failure. Osmeña and Quezon, as the acknowledged representatives, were not genuinely interested in social reform, and serious problems involving land ownership, tenancy, and the highly unequal distribution of wealth were largely ignored. The growing power of the Nacionalista Party, particularly in the period after 1916 when it gained almost complete control of a bicameral Filipino legislature, barred the effective inclusion of nonelite interests in the political system. Not only revolution but also moderate reform of the social and economic systems were precluded. Discussions of policy alternatives became less salient to the political process than the dynamics of personalism and the ethic of give and take.

Data as of June 1991



BackgroundThe Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century; they were ceded to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. In 1935 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Manuel QUEZON was elected president and was tasked with preparing the country for independence after a 10-year transition. In 1942 the islands fell under Japanese occupation during World War II, and US forces and Filipinos fought together during 1944-45 to regain control. On 4 July 1946 the Republic of the Philippines attained its independence. The 20-year rule of Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986, when a "people power" movement in Manila ("EDSA 1") forced him into exile and installed Corazon AQUINO as president. Her presidency was hampered by several coup attempts, which prevented a return to full political stability and economic development. Fidel RAMOS was elected president in 1992 and his administration was marked by greater stability and progress on economic reforms. In 1992, the US closed its last military bases on the islands. Joseph ESTRADA was elected president in 1998, but was succeeded by his vice-president, Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, in January 2001 after ESTRADA's stormy impeachment trial on corruption charges broke down and another "people power" movement ("EDSA 2") demanded his resignation. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2004. The Philippine Government faces threats from three terrorist groups on the US Government's Foreign Terrorist Organization list, but in 2006 and 2007 scored some major successes in capturing or killing key wanted terrorists. Decades of Muslim insurgency in the southern Philippines have led to a peace accord with one group and on-again/off-again peace talks with another.
LocationSoutheastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam
Area(sq km)total: 300,000 sq km
land: 298,170 sq km
water: 1,830 sq km
Geographic coordinates13 00 N, 122 00 E
Land boundaries(km)0 km

Coastline(km)36,289 km

Climatetropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)

Elevation extremes(m)lowest point: Philippine Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Apo 2,954 m
Natural resourcestimber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
Land use(%)arable land: 19%
permanent crops: 16.67%
other: 64.33% (2005)

Irrigated land(sq km)15,500 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources(cu km)479 cu km (1999)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 28.52 cu km/yr (17%/9%/74%)
per capita: 343 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazardsastride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis
Environment - current issuesuncontrolled deforestation especially in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in major urban centers; coral reef degradation; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important fish breeding grounds
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - notethe Philippine archipelago is made up of 7,107 islands; favorably located in relation to many of Southeast Asia's main water bodies: the South China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and Luzon Strait
Population97,976,603 (July 2009 est.)
Age structure(%)0-14 years: 35.2% (male 17,606,352/female 16,911,376)
15-64 years: 60.6% (male 29,679,327/female 29,737,919)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 1,744,248/female 2,297,381) (2009 est.)
Median age(years)total: 22.5 years
male: 22 years
female: 23 years (2009 est.)
Population growth rate(%)1.957% (2009 est.)
Birth rate(births/1,000 population)26.01 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Death rate(deaths/1,000 population)5.1 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

Net migration rate(migrant(s)/1,000 population)-1.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Urbanization(%)urban population: 65% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio(male(s)/female)at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Infant mortality rate(deaths/1,000 live births)total: 20.56 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 23.17 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth(years)total population: 71.09 years
male: 68.17 years
female: 74.15 years (2009 est.)

Total fertility rate(children born/woman)3.27 children born/woman (2009 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Filipino(s)
adjective: Philippine
Ethnic groups(%)Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, other 25.3% (2000 census)

Religions(%)Roman Catholic 80.9%, Muslim 5%, Evangelical 2.8%, Iglesia ni Kristo 2.3%, Aglipayan 2%, other Christian 4.5%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.6%, none 0.1% (2000 census)
Languages(%)Filipino (official; based on Tagalog) and English (official); eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan

Country nameconventional long form: Republic of the Philippines
conventional short form: Philippines
local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas
local short form: Pilipinas
Government typerepublic
Capitalname: Manila
geographic coordinates: 14 35 N, 121 00 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions80 provinces and 120 chartered cities
provinces: Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Antique, Apayao, Aurora, Basilan, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Biliran, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cebu, Compostela, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dinagat Islands, Eastern Samar, Guimaras, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Isabela, Kalinga, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, La Union, Leyte, Maguindanao, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain Province, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Palawan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Samar, Sarangani, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tarlac, Tawi-Tawi, Zambales, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay
chartered cities: Alaminos, Angeles, Antipolo, Bacolod, Bago, Baguio, Bais, Balanga, Batac, Batangas, Bayawan, Bislig, Butuan, Cabadbaran, Cabanatuan, Cadiz, Cagayan de Oro, Calamba, Calapan, Calbayog, Candon, Canlaon, Cauayan, Cavite, Cebu, Cotabato, Dagupan, Danao, Dapitan, Davao, Digos, Dipolog, Dumaguete, Escalante, Gapan, General Santos, Gingoog, Himamaylan, Iligan, Iloilo, Isabela, Iriga, Kabankalan, Kalookan, Kidapawan, Koronadal, La Carlota, Laoag, Lapu-Lapu, Las Pinas, Legazpi, Ligao, Lipa, Lucena, Maasin, Makati, Malabon, Malaybalay, Malolos, Mandaluyong, Mandaue, Manila, Marawi, Marikina, Masbate, Mati, Meycauayan, Muntinlupa, Munoz, Naga, Navotas, Olongapo, Ormoc, Oroquieta, Ozamis, Pagadian, Palayan, Panabo, Paranaque, Pasay, Pasig, Passi, Puerto Princesa, Quezon, Roxas, Sagay, Samal, San Carlos (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos (in Pangasinan), San Fernando (in La Union), San Fernando (in Pampanga), San Jose, San Jose del Monte, San Juan, San Pablo, Santa Rosa, Santiago, Silay, Sipalay, Sorsogon, Surigao, Tabaco, Tacloban, Tacurong, Tagaytay, Tagbilaran, Taguig, Tagum, Talisay (in Cebu), Talisay (in Negros Occidental), Tanauan, Tangub, Tanjay, Tarlac, Toledo, Tuguegarao, Trece Martires, Urdaneta, Valencia, Valenzuela, Victorias, Vigan, Zamboanga (2009)
Constitution2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987

Legal systembased on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001); Vice President (Manuel "Noli" DE CASTRO (since 10 May 2004); note - president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with consent of Commission of Appointments
elections: president and vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote for a single six-year term; election last held on 10 May 2004 (next to be held in May 2010)
election results: Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO elected president; percent of vote - Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO 40%, Fernando POE 37%, three others 23%

Legislative branchbicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of the Senate or Senado (24 seats - one-half elected every three years; members elected at large by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Kapulungan Ng Nga Kinatawan (as a result of May 2007 election it has 240 seats including 218 members representing districts and 22 sectoral party-list members representing special minorities elected on the basis of 1 seat for every 2% of the total vote but limited to 3 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; note - the Constitution prohibits the House of Representatives from having more than 250 members)
elections: Senate - last held on 14 May 2007 (next to be held in May 2010); House of Representatives - elections last held on 14 May 2007 (next to be held in May 2010)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Lakas 4, LP 4, Nacionalista 3, NPC 2, PDP-Laban 2, PMP 2, Kampi 1, LDP 1, PRP 1, independents 3; note - there are 23 rather than 24 sitting senators because one senator was elected mayor of Manila; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Lakas 92, Kampi 54, NPC 25, LP 21, Party-list 22, independents 3, others 26; there are 238 rather than 240 sitting representatives because two died in office

Judicial branchSupreme Court (15 justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council and serve until 70 years of age); Court of Appeals; Sandigan-bayan (special court for hearing corruption cases of government officials)

Political pressure groups and leadersABONO [Robert ESTRELLA]; AKBAYAN [Anna Theresia BARAQUIEL]; An Waray [Florencio NOEL]; Anak Mindanao [Mujiv HATAMIN]; ANAKPAWIS [Rafael MARIANO]; ARC [Narciso SANTIAGO III]; Association of Philippine Electric Cooperatives (APEC) [Ernesto PABLO and Edgar VALDEZ]; A TEACHER [Mariano PIAMONTE]; Bayan Muna [Satur OCAMPO and Teodoro CASINO, Jr.]; Black and White Movement [Vicente ROMANO]; BUHAY [Rene VELARDE, Carissa COSCOLLUELLA, and William TIENG]; BUTIL [Leonila CHAVEZ]; CIBAC [Emmanuel Joel VILLANUEVA]; COOP-NATCO [Jose PING-AY]; GABRIELA [Liza MAZA and Luzviminda ILAGAN]; Kilosbayan [Jovito SALONGA]; YACAP [Carol LOPEZ]
International organization participationADB, APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CP, EAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Flag descriptiontwo equal horizontal bands of blue (top; representing peace and justice) and red (representing courage); a white equilateral triangle based on the hoist side represents equality; the center of the triangle displays a yellow sun with eight primary rays, each representing one of the first eight provinces that sought independence from Spain; each corner of the triangle contains a small, yellow, five-pointed star representing the three major geographical divisions of the country: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao; the design of the flag dates to 1897; in wartime the flag is flown upside down with the red band at the top

Economy - overviewEconomic growth has averaged 5% since President MACAPAGAL-ARROYO took office in 2001. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO averted a fiscal crisis by pushing for new revenue measures and, until recently, tightening expenditures. Declining fiscal deficits, tapering debt and debt service ratios, and increased spending on infrastructure and social services bolstered optimism over Philippine economic prospects. Although the general macroeconomic outlook improved significantly in recent years, the economy still faces several long term challenges. The Philippines must maintain the reform momentum in order to catch up with regional competitors, improve employment opportunities, and alleviate poverty. The Philippines will need still higher, sustained growth to make progress in alleviating poverty, given its high population growth and unequal distribution of income. The Philippine economy grew at its fastest pace in three decades in 2007 with real GDP growth exceeding 7%, but growth slowed to 3.8% in 2008 as a result of the world financial crisis. High government spending, a relatively small trade sector, a resilient service sector, and large remittances from the four- to five-million Filipinos who work abroad have helped cushion the economy from the current financial crisis.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$318.2 billion (2008 est.)
$306.6 billion (2007 est.)
$286.2 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate)$166.9 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate(%)3.8% (2008 est.)
7.1% (2007 est.)
5.3% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$3,300 (2008 est.)
$3,300 (2007 est.)
$3,100 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector(%)agriculture: 14.7%
industry: 31.6%
services: 53.7% (2008 est.)
Labor force36.81 million (2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation(%)agriculture: 35%
industry: 15%
services: 50% (2008 est.)
Unemployment rate(%)7.4% (2008 est.)
7.3% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line(%)30% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share(%)lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 31.2% (2006)
Distribution of family income - Gini index45.8 (2006)
46.6 (2003)
Investment (gross fixed)(% of GDP)14.8% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $27.05 billion
expenditures: $28.58 billion (2008 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)(%)9.3% (2008 est.)
2.8% (2007 est.)

Stock of money$22.53 billion (31 December 2008)
$21.27 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of quasi money$NA (31 December 2008)
$65.85 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of domestic credit$NA (31 December 2008)
$65.66 billion (31 December 2007)
Market value of publicly traded shares$52.1 billion (31 December 2008)
$103.2 billion (31 December 2007)
$68.38 billion (31 December 2006)
Economic aid - recipientODA, $451.4 million in commitments (2006)

Public debt(% of GDP)56.9% of GDP (2008 est.)
74.2% of GDP (September 2004 est.)
Agriculture - productssugarcane, coconuts, rice, corn, bananas, cassavas, pineapples, mangoes; pork, eggs, beef; fish
Industrieselectronics assembly, garments, footwear, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, petroleum refining, fishing

Industrial production growth rate(%)5% (2008 est.)

Current account balance$4.227 billion (2008 est.)
$7.119 billion (2007 est.)
Exports$48.2 billion (2008 est.)
$49.51 billion (2007 est.)

Exports - commodities(%)semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, fruits
Exports - partners(%)US 16.7%, Japan 15.7%, China 11.1%, Hong Kong 10.1%, Netherlands 7.5%, Singapore 5.3%, South Korea 5.1%, Germany 5% (2008)
Imports$60.78 billion (2008 est.)
$57.9 billion (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities(%)electronic products, mineral fuels, machinery and transport equipment, iron and steel, textile fabrics, grains, chemicals, plastic
Imports - partners(%)US 12.8%, Japan 11.8%, Singapore 10.3%, Saudi Arabia 8.5%, China 7.5%, South Korea 5.2%, Thailand 5%, Malaysia 4.3% (2008)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$37.55 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$33.75 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external$66.27 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$61.78 billion (31 December 2007 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$21.4 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$19.88 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$5.81 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$5.584 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Exchange ratesPhilippine pesos (PHP) per US dollar - 44.439 (2008 est.), 46.148 (2007), 51.246 (2006), 55.086 (2005), 56.04 (2004)

Currency (code)Philippine peso (PHP)

Telephones - main lines in use3.905 million (2008)
Telephones - mobile cellular68.102 million (2008)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate
domestic: domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations; cellular communications now dominate the industry; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density about 80 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 63; a series of submarine cables together provide connectivity to Asia, US, the Middle East, and Europe; multiple international gateways (2008)
Internet country code.ph
Internet users5.618 million (2008)
Airports254 (2009)
Pipelines(km)oil 107 km; refined products 112 km (2008)
Roadways(km)total: 201,910 km
paved: 21,677 km
unpaved: 180,233 km (2008)

Ports and terminalsCagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Liman, Manila, Nasipit Harbor
Military branchesArmed Forces of the Philippines (AFP): Army, Navy (includes Marine Corps and Coast Guard), Air Force (2009)
Military service age and obligation(years of age)18-25 years of age (officers 21-29) for compulsory and voluntary military service; applicants must be single male or female Philippine citizens (2007)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 23,547,252
females age 16-49: 23,177,487 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 19,169,298
females age 16-49: 20,636,853 (2009 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 1,023,431
female: 986,434 (2009 est.)
Military expenditures(% of GDP)0.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
Disputes - internationalPhilippines claims sovereignty over certain of the Spratly Islands, known locally as the Kalayaan (Freedom) Islands, also claimed by China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea," has eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; Philippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo based on the Sultanate of Sulu's granting the Philippines Government power of attorney to pursue a sovereignty claim on his behalf; maritime delimitation negotiations continue with Palau

Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 300,000 (fighting between government troops and MILF and Abu Sayyaf groups) (2007)
Electricity - production(kWh)56.57 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - production by source(%)fossil fuel: 55.6%
hydro: 17.5%
nuclear: 0%
other: 26.9% (2001)
Electricity - consumption(kWh)48.96 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - exports(kWh)0 kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports(kWh)0 kWh (2008 est.)
Oil - production(bbl/day)25,120 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - consumption(bbl/day)320,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - exports(bbl/day)36,720 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - imports(bbl/day)342,200 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - proved reserves(bbl)138.5 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
Natural gas - production(cu m)2.94 billion cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - consumption(cu m)2.94 billion cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - exports(cu m)0 cu m (2008)
Natural gas - proved reserves(cu m)98.54 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate(%)less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS8,300 (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsfewer than 200 (2007 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese encephalitis
water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009)
Literacy(%)definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 92.5%
female: 92.7% (2000 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)(years)total: 12 years
male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2006)
Education expenditures(% of GDP)2.5% of GDP (2005)








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