About  |   Contact  |  Mongabay on Facebook  |  Mongabay on Twitter  |  Subscribe
Rainforests | Tropical fish | Environmental news | For kids | Madagascar | Photos

Pakistan-ZULFIQAR ALI BHUTTO AND A NEW CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM





MONGABAY.COM
Mongabay.com seeks to raise interest in and appreciation of wild lands and wildlife, while examining the impact of emerging trends in climate, technology, economics, and finance on conservation and development (more)







WEEKLY NEWSLETTER
Email:


Pakistan Index

On assuming power on December 20, 1971, Bhutto promised to make a new Pakistan out of the West Wing and to restore national confidence. He conveniently laid the entire blame for the 1971 war and Pakistan's defeat on Yahya Khan and his junta. Asserting the principle of civilian leadership, Bhutto introduced a new constitution with a modified parliamentary and federal system. He attempted to control and reform the civil service and took steps to revitalize a stagnant economy and ameliorate conditions for the poor under the banner of Islamic socialism. Bhutto's most visible success, however, was in the international arena, where he employed his diplomatic skills. He negotiated a satisfactory peace settlement with India in 1972, built new links between Pakistan and the oil-exporting Islamic countries to the west, and generally was effective in repairing Pakistan's image in the aftermath of the war.

Bhutto's program appeared to be laudable but fell short in performance. His near-monopoly of decision-making power prevented democratic institutions from taking root, and his overreaching ambitions managed in time to antagonize all but his closest friends.

The PPP manifesto was couched in socialist terms. When Bhutto issued the Economic Reform Order on January 3, 1972, banking and insurance institutions were nationalized, and seventy other industrial enterprises were taken over by the government. The Ministry of Production, which incorporated the Board of Industrial Management, was established to oversee industry. Investment in the public sector increased substantially, and Bhutto maneuvered to break the power of the approximately twenty elite families who had dominated the nation's economy during the Ayub Khan period. Trade unions were strengthened, and welfare measures for labor were announced. Although Bhutto's initial zeal diminished as he came face-to-face with economic realities and the shortage of capital, he tried to refurbish his populist image with another spate of nationalizations in 1976.

Bhutto purged the military ranks of about 1,400 officers. He also created a paramilitary force called the Federal Security Force (which functioned almost as his personal bodyguard), a watchdog on the armed forces, and an internal security force. A white paper on defense issued in 1976 firmly subordinated the armed forces to civilian control and gave Bhutto, then also prime minister, the decisive voice in all matters relating to national security. In that role, Bhutto took credit for bringing home more than 90,000 prisoners of war without allowing any of them to come to trial in Bangladesh for war crimes. In 1976 Bhutto replaced Tikka Khan, whose term had expired, with General Mohammad Zia ul-Haq as chief of staff of the army. Like Ayub Khan, Zia was appointed over several more senior generals. Also like Ayub Khan, Zia came from a community not heavily represented in the armed forces (the Arains from Punjab) and was thought to be without political ambition.

In April 1972, Bhutto lifted martial law and convened the National Assembly, which consisted of members elected from the West Wing in December 1970 (plus two from the East Wing who decided their loyalties were with a united Pakistan). The standing controversies about the role of Islam, provincial autonomy, and the form of government--presidential or parliamentary--remained on the agenda. There was much jostling for position among the three major political groups: the PPP, most powerful in Punjab and Sindh; the National Awami Party (NAP) and the Jamiat-ul-Ulama-i-Islam (JUI), both based in the North- West Frontier Province and Balochistan. The provincial assemblies were constituted from those elected in December 1970. There was much tension during the process of drafting a new constitution, especially from members from the North-West Frontier Province and Balochistan. Bhutto reached some accommodation with opposition leaders from those two provinces on the matter of gubernatorial appointment and constitutional principle.

Pakistan's third constitution was formally submitted on December 31, 1972, approved on April 10, 1973, and promulgated on independence day, August 14, 1973. Although Bhutto campaigned in 1970 for the restoration of a parliamentary system, by 1972 he preferred a presidential system with himself as president. However, in deference to the wishes of the opposition and some in his own cabinet, Bhutto accepted a formal parliamentary system in which the executive was responsible to the legislature. Supposedly, in the interests of government stability, provisions were also included that made it almost impossible for the National Assembly to remove the prime minister. The 1973 constitution provided for a federal structure in which residuary powers were reserved for the provinces. However, Bhutto dismissed the coalition NAP-JUI ministries in Balochistan and the North- West Frontier Province, revealing his preference for a powerful center without opposition in the provinces.

Bhutto's power derived less from the 1973 constitution than from his charismatic appeal to the people and from the vigor of the PPP. Its socialist program and Bhutto's oratory had done much to radicalize the urban sectors in the late 1960s and were responsible for the popular optimism accompanying the restoration of democracy. The ideological appeal of the PPP to the masses sat uneasily with the compromises Bhutto reached with the holders of economic and political influence--the landlords and commercial elites. Factionalism and patrimonialism became rife in the PPP, especially in Punjab. The internal cohesion of the PPP and its standing in public esteem were affected adversely by the ubiquitous political and bureaucratic corruption that accompanied state intervention in the economy and, equally, by the rising incidence of political violence, which included beating, arresting, and even murdering opponents. The PPP had started as a movement mobilizing people to overthrow a military regime, but in Bhutto's lifetime it failed to change into a political party organized for peaceful functioning in an open polity.

Bhutto's predilection for a strong center and for provincial governments in the hands of the PPP inevitably aroused opposition in provinces where regional and ethnic identity was strong. Feelings of Sindhi solidarity were maintained by Bhutto's personal connections with the feudal leaders (wadera) of Sindh and his ability to manipulate offices and officeholders. He did not enjoy the same leverage in the North-West Frontier Province or Balochistan.

A long-dormant crisis erupted in Balochistan in 1973 into an insurgency that lasted four years and became increasingly bitter. The insurgency was put down by the Pakistan Army, which employed brutal methods and equipment, including Huey-Cobra helicopter gunships, provided by Iran and flown by Iranian pilots. The deep-seated Baloch nationalism based on tribal identity had international as well as domestic aspects. Divided in the nineteenth century among Iran, Afghanistan, and British India, the Baloch found their aspirations and traditional nomadic life frustrated by the presence of national boundaries and the extension of central administration over their lands. Moreover, many of the most militant Baloch nationalists were also vaguely Marxist-Leninist and willing to risk Soviet protection for an autonomous Balochistan. As the insurgency wore on, the influence of a relatively small but disciplined liberation front seemed to increase.

Bhutto was able to mobilize domestic support for his drive against the Baloch. Punjab's support was most tangibly represented in the use of the army to put down the insurgency. One of the main Baloch grievances was the influx of Punjabi settlers, miners, and traders into their resource-rich but sparsely populated lands. Bhutto could also invoke the idea of national integration with effect in the aftermath of Bengali secession. External assistance to Bhutto was generously given by the shah of Iran, who feared a spread of the insurrection among the Iranian Baloch. Some foreign governments feared that an independent or autonomous Balochistan might allow the Soviet Union to develop and use the port at Gwadar, and no outside power was willing to assist the Baloch openly or to sponsor the cause of Baloch autonomy. During the mid-1970s, Afghanistan was preoccupied with its own internal problems and seemingly anxious to normalize relations with Pakistan. India was fearful of further balkanization of the subcontinent after Bangladesh, and the Soviet Union did not wish to jeopardize the leverage it was gaining with Pakistan. However, during the Bhutto regime hostilities in Balochistan were protracted. The succeeding Zia ul-Haq government took a more moderate approach, relying more on economic development to placate the Baloch.

Bhutto proceeded cautiously in the field of land reform and did not fulfill earlier promises of distributing land to the landless on the scale he had promised, as he was forced to recognize and to cultivate the sociopolitical influence of landowners. However, he did not impede the process of consolidation of tenancy rights and acquisition of mid-sized holdings by servicemen. Punjab was the vital agricultural region of Pakistan; it remained a bastion of support for the government.

Bhutto specifically targeted the powerful and privileged Civil Service of Pakistan (CSP) and introduced measures of administrative reform with the declared purpose of limiting the paternalistic power of the bureaucracy. The CSP, however, had played the role of guardian alongside the army since independence. Many of its members reacted badly to Bhutto's politicizing appointments, for which patronage seemed a more important criterion than merit or seniority.

Relations with India were, at best, uneven during the Bhutto period. He accomplished the return of the prisoners of war through the Simla Agreement of 1972, but no settlement of the key problem of Kashmir was possible beyond an agreement that any settlement should be peaceful. Bhutto reacted strongly to the detonation of a nuclear device by India in 1974 and pledged that Pakistan would match that development even if Pakistanis had to "eat grass" to cover the cost.

Bhutto claimed success for his economic policies. The gross national product (GNP--see Glossary) and the rate of economic growth climbed. Inflation fell from 25 percent in fiscal year (FY--see Glossary) 1972 to 6 percent in FY 1976, although other economic measures he introduced did not perform as well.

Bhutto pointed out that his foreign policy had brought Pakistan prestige in the Islamic world, peace if not friendship with India, and self-respect in dealings with the great powers. He felt assured of victory in any election. Therefore, with commitment to a constitutional order at stake, in January 1977 he announced he would hold national and provincial assembly elections in March.

The response of the opposition to this news was vigorous. Nine political parties ranging across the ideological spectrum formed a united front--the Pakistan National Alliance (PNA). Fundamentalist Muslims were satisfied by the adoption of Nizam-i-Mustafa (see Glossary), meaning "Rule of the Prophet," as the front's slogan. Modern secular elements, however, respected the association of Air Marshal Asghar Khan. The PNA ran candidates for almost all national and provincial seats. As curbs on the press and political activity were relaxed for the election campaign, an apparently strong wave of support for the PNA swept Pakistan's cities. This prompted a whirlwind tour of the country by Bhutto, with all his winning charm in the forefront. In the background lurked indirect curbs on free expression as well as political gangsterism.

National Assembly election results were announced on March 7, proclaiming the PPP the winner with 155 seats versus thirty-six seats for the PNA. Expecting trouble, Bhutto invoked Section 144 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, which restricted assembly for political reasons. The PNA immediately challenged the election results as rigged and demanded a new election--not a recount. Bhutto refused, and a mass protest movement was launched against him. Religious symbols were used by both sides to mobilize agitation; for example, Bhutto imposed prohibitions on the consumption of alcoholic beverages and on gambling. Despite talks between Bhutto and opposition leaders, the disorders persisted as a multitude of frustrations were vented. The army intervened on July 5, took all political leaders including Bhutto into custody, and proclaimed martial law.

Data as of April 1994



BackgroundThe Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars - in 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. The dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but discussions and confidence-building measures have helped the two countries begin to work through their issues. In February 2008, Pakistan held parliamentary elections and in September 2008, after the resignation of former President MUSHARRAF, elected Asif Ali ZARDARI to the presidency. Pakistani government and military leaders are struggling to control domestic insurgents, many of whom are located in the tribal areas adjacent to the border with Afghanistan. India-Pakistan relations have been rocky since the November 2008 Mumbai attacks, but both countries are taking small steps to put relations back on track.
LocationSouthern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
Area(sq km)total: 796,095 sq km
land: 770,875 sq km
water: 25,220 sq km
Geographic coordinates30 00 N, 70 00 E
Land boundaries(km)total: 6,774 km
border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km

Coastline(km)1,046 km

Climatemostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north

Elevation extremes(m)lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
Natural resourcesland, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Land use(%)arable land: 24.44%
permanent crops: 0.84%
other: 74.72% (2005)

Irrigated land(sq km)182,300 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources(cu km)233.8 cu km (2003)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 169.39 cu km/yr (2%/2%/96%)
per capita: 1,072 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazardsfrequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
Environment - current issueswater pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - notecontrols Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent
Population176,242,949 (July 2009 est.)
Age structure(%)0-14 years: 37.2% (male 33,739,547/female 31,868,065)
15-64 years: 58.6% (male 52,849,607/female 50,378,198)
65 years and over: 4.2% (male 3,475,927/female 3,931,605) (2009 est.)
Median age(years)total: 20.8 years
male: 20.6 years
female: 21 years (2009 est.)
Population growth rate(%)1.947% (2009 est.)
Birth rate(births/1,000 population)27.62 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Death rate(deaths/1,000 population)7.68 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

Net migration rate(migrant(s)/1,000 population)-0.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Urbanization(%)urban population: 36% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio(male(s)/female)at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Infant mortality rate(deaths/1,000 live births)total: 65.14 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 65.24 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 65.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth(years)total population: 64.49 years
male: 63.4 years
female: 65.64 years (2009 est.)

Total fertility rate(children born/woman)3.6 children born/woman (2009 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Pakistani(s)
adjective: Pakistani
Ethnic groups(%)Punjabi 44.68%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.42%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.38%, Muhagirs 7.57%, Balochi 3.57%, other 6.28%

Religions(%)Muslim 95% (Sunni 75%, Shia 20%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 5%
Languages(%)Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%

Country nameconventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
conventional short form: Pakistan
local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan
local short form: Pakistan
former: West Pakistan
Government typefederal republic
Capitalname: Islamabad
geographic coordinates: 33 42 N, 73 10 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, in 2009 - begins third Wednesday in April; ends first Sunday in November; note - a new policy of daylight saving time was initiated by the government in 2008; the specific date of the start of DST has varied over the last two years
Administrative divisions4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab, Sindh
note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of two administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan
Constitution12 April 1973; suspended 5 July 1977, restored 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999, restored in stages in 2002; amended 31 December 2003; suspended 3 November 2007; restored on 15 December 2007

Legal systembased on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Suffrage18 years of age; universal; joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims
Executive branchchief of state: President Asif Ali ZARDARI (since 9 September 2008)
head of government: Prime Minister Syed Yousuf Raza GILANI (since 25 March 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the advice of the prime minister
elections: the president is elected by secret ballot through an Electoral College comprising the members of the Senate, National Assembly, and the provincial assemblies for a five-year term; election last held on 6 September 2008 (next to be held not later than 2013); note - any person who is a Muslim and not less than 45 years of age and is qualified to be elected as a member of the National Assembly can contest the presidential election; the prime minister is selected by the National Assembly; election last held on 24 March 2008
election results: Asif Ali ZARDARI elected president; ZARDARI 481 votes, SIDDIQUE 153 votes, SYED 44 votes; Syed Yousuf Raza GILANI elected prime minister; GILANI 264 votes, Pervaiz ELAHI 42 votes; several abstentions

Legislative branchbicameral parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (100 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies and the territories' representatives in the National Assembly to serve six-year terms; one half are elected every three years) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members elected by popular vote; 60 seats reserved for women; 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims; serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 3 March 2009 (next to be held in March 2012); National Assembly - last held on 18 February 2008 with by-elections on 26 June 2008 (next to be held in 2013)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPPP 27, PML-Q 21, MMA 9, PML-N 7, ANP 6, MQM 6, JUI-F 4, BNP-A 2, JWP 1, NPP 1, PKMAP 1, PML-F 1, PPP 1, independents 13; National Assembly - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party - PPPP 124, PML-N 91, PML 54, MQM 25, ANP 13, MMA 7, PML-F 5, BNP-A 1, NPP 1, PPP-S 1, independents 17; note - 3 seats remain unfilled

Judicial branchSupreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Sharia Court

Political pressure groups and leadersother: military (most important political force); ulema (clergy); landowners; industrialists; small merchants
International organization participationADB, ARF, C, CP, ECO, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURCAT, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Flag descriptiongreen with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

Economy - overviewPakistan, an impoverished and underdeveloped country, has suffered from decades of internal political disputes, low levels of foreign investment, and declining exports of manufactures. Faced with untenable budgetary deficits, high inflation, and hemorrhaging foreign exchange reserves, the government agreed to an International Monetary Fund Standby Arrangement in November 2008. Between 2004-07, GDP growth in the 6-8% range was spurred by gains in the industrial and service sectors, despite severe electricity shortfalls. Poverty levels decreased by 10% since 2001, and Islamabad steadily raised development spending in recent years. In 2008 the fiscal deficit - a result of chronically low tax collection and increased spending - exceeded Islamabad's target of 4% of GDP. Inflation remains the top concern among the public, jumping from 7.7% in 2007 to 20.8% in 2008, primarily because of rising world fuel and commodity prices. In addition, the Pakistani rupee has depreciated significantly as a result of political and economic instability.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$431.2 billion (2008 est.)
$417 billion (2007 est.)
$393.4 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate)$164.6 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate(%)3.4% (2008 est.)
6% (2007 est.)
6% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$2,500 (2008 est.)
$2,500 (2007 est.)
$2,400 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector(%)agriculture: 20.4%
industry: 26.6%
services: 53% (2008 est.)
Labor force50.58 million
note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation(%)agriculture: 43%
industry: 20.3%
services: 36.6% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate(%)13.6% (2008 est.)
5.6% (2007 est.)
note: substantial underemployment exists
Population below poverty line(%)24% (FY05/06 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share(%)lowest 10%: 3.9%
highest 10%: 26.5% (2005)
Distribution of family income - Gini index30.6 (FY07/08)
41 (FY98/99)
Investment (gross fixed)(% of GDP)20% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $22.3 billion
expenditures: $32.35 billion (2008 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)(%)20.3% (2008 est.)
7.6% (2007 est.)

Stock of money$NA (31 December 2008)
$52.76 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of quasi money$NA (31 December 2008)
$18.42 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of domestic credit$NA (31 December 2008)
$65.05 billion (31 December 2007)
Market value of publicly traded shares$23.49 billion (31 December 2008)
$70.26 billion (31 December 2007)
$45.52 billion (31 December 2006)
Economic aid - recipient$1.666 billion (2005)

Public debt(% of GDP)51.2% of GDP (2008 est.)
71.4% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
Industriestextiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp

Industrial production growth rate(%)4.6% (2008 est.)

Current account balance-$15.68 billion (2008 est.)
-$8.297 billion (2007 est.)
Exports$21.09 billion (2008 est.)
$18.12 billion (2007 est.)

Exports - commodities(%)textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs
Exports - partners(%)US 16%, UAE 11.7%, Afghanistan 8.6%, UK 4.5%, China 4.2% (2008)
Imports$38.19 billion (2008 est.)
$28.76 billion (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities(%)petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
Imports - partners(%)China 14.1%, Saudi Arabia 12%, UAE 11.2%, Kuwait 5.4%, India 4.8%, US 4.7%, Malaysia 4.1% (2008)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$8.903 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$15.69 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external$46.39 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$38.8 billion (31 December 2007 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$25.44 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$20.01 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$1.017 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$982 million (31 December 2007 est.)
Exchange ratesPakistani rupees (PKR) per US dollar - 70.64 (2008 est.), 60.6295 (2007), 60.35 (2006), 59.515 (2005), 58.258 (2004)

Currency (code)Pakistani rupee (PKR)

Telephones - main lines in use4.546 million (2008)
Telephones - mobile cellular91.44 million (2009)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the telecommunications infrastructure is improving dramatically with foreign and domestic investments in fixed-line and mobile networks; mobile-cellular subscribership has skyrocketed, reaching some 91 million in 2009, up from only about 300,000 in 2000; fiber systems are being constructed throughout the country to aid in network growth; main line availability has risen only marginally over the same period and there are still difficulties getting main line service to rural areas
domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks
international: country code - 92; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2009)
Internet country code.pk
Internet users18.5 million (2008)
Airports145 (2009)
Pipelines(km)gas 10,402 km; oil 2,076 km; refined products 792 km (2008)
Roadways(km)total: 259,197 km
paved: 172,827 km (includes 711 km of expressways)
unpaved: 86,370 km (2007)

Ports and terminalsKarachi, Port Muhammad Bin Qasim
Military branchesArmy (includes National Guard), Navy (includes Marines and Maritime Security Agency), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fiza'ya) (2008)
Military service age and obligation(years of age)17-23 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age 18; the Pakistani Air Force and Pakistani Navy have inducted their first female pilots and sailors (2009)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 42,633,765
females age 16-49: 40,114,017 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 33,690,322
females age 16-49: 32,602,910 (2009 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 2,089,936
female: 1,964,090 (2009 est.)
Military expenditures(% of GDP)3% of GDP (2007 est.)
Disputes - internationalvarious talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed stand-off in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State; by 2005, Pakistan, with UN assistance, repatriated 2.3 million Afghan refugees leaving slightly more than a million, many of whom remain at their own choosing; Pakistan has proposed and Afghanistan protests construction of a fence and laying of mines along portions of their porous border; Pakistan has sent troops into remote tribal areas to monitor and control the border with Afghanistan and to stem terrorist or other illegal activities

Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 1,043,984 (Afghanistan)
IDPs: undetermined (government strikes on Islamic militants in South Waziristan); 34,000 (October 2005 earthquake; most of those displaced returned to their home villages in the spring of 2006) (2007)
Electricity - production(kWh)90.8 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - production by source(%)fossil fuel: 68.8%
hydro: 28.2%
nuclear: 3%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption(kWh)72.2 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - exports(kWh)0 kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports(kWh)0 kWh (2008 est.)
Oil - production(bbl/day)61,870 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - consumption(bbl/day)383,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - exports(bbl/day)30,090 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - imports(bbl/day)319,500 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - proved reserves(bbl)339 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
Natural gas - production(cu m)37.5 billion cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - consumption(cu m)37.5 billion cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - exports(cu m)0 cu m (2008)
Natural gas - proved reserves(cu m)885.3 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate(%)0.1% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS96,000 (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths5,100 (2007 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
Literacy(%)definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 49.9%
male: 63%
female: 36% (2005 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)(years)total: 7 years
male: 7 years
female: 6 years (2006)
Education expenditures(% of GDP)2.6% of GDP (2006)








Copyright mongabay 2000-2013