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Pakistan-Table A - Chronology of Important Events

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Pakistan Index

Period                             Description


ca. 2500-1600 B.C.                 Indus Valley culture

ca. 1500-500 B.C.                  Migrations of Indo-Aryan-
                                   speaking tribes; the Vedic

ca. 563-483 B.C.                   Life of Siddartha Gautama--the
                                   Buddha; founding of Buddhism.

ca. 321-180 B.C.                   Mauryan Empire; reign of
                                   Ashoka (r. ca. 274-236 B.C.);
                                   spread of Buddhism.

ca. 180 B.C.-A.D. 150              Saka dynasties in Indus

ca. A.D. 78-ca. 200                Kushan Empire; Gandharan art

ca. A.D. 319-ca. 600               Gupta Empire; classical age in
                                   northern India.


711                                Muhammad bin Qasim, an Arab
                                   general, conquers Sindh and
                                   incorporates it into Umayyad

1001-1030                          Mahmud of Ghazni raids Indian
                                   subcontinent from Afghanistan.

1192                               Muhammad of Ghor defeats

1206-1526                          Delhi Sultanate.

1398                               Timur destroys Delhi.


1526                               Babur defeats last Lodhi
                                   sultan in first Battle of
                                   Panipat, thus laying
                                   foundation of Mughal Empire.

1556                               Akbar victorious in second
                                   Battle of Panipat.

1556-1605                          Reign of Akbar.

1605-27                            Reign of Jahangir; in 1612
                                   East India Company opens first
                                   trading post (factory).

1628-58                            Reign of Shah Jahan, builder
                                   of Taj Mahal.

1658-1707                          Reign of Aurangzeb, last great
                                   Mughal ruler.

1707-1858                          Lesser emperors; decline of
                                   Mughal Empire.


1757                               Battle of Plassey and British
                                   victory over Mughal forces in
                                   Bengal; conventional date for
                                   beginning of British rule in 

1799-1839                          Sikh kingdom established in
                                   Punjab under Maharaja Ranjit

1830s                              Institution of British
                                   education and other reform

1838-42                            First Anglo-Afghan War.

1843                               British annex Sindh,
                                   Hyderabad, and Khairpur.

1845-49                            Sikh Wars; British annex
                                   Punjab; Kashmir sold to Dogra
                                   Dynasty, to be ruled under
                                   British paramountcy.

1857-58                            Uprising, variously known as
                                   Indian Mutiny, Sepoy
                                   Rebellion, and by Indian
                                   nationalists as First War of

1858                               East India Company dissolved;
                                   rule of India under British
                                   crown (the British Raj)
                                   begins; marks formal end of
                                   Mughal Empire.

1878-80                            Second Anglo-Afghan War.

1885                               Indian National Congress

1893                               Durand Line established as
                                   boundary between Afghanistan
                                   and British India.

1905                               Partition of Bengal.

1906                               All-India Muslim League

1909                               Morley-Minto Reforms establish
                                   separate electorates for

1911                               Partition of Bengal annulled.

1916                               Congress-Muslim League Pact
                                   (often referred to as Lucknow
                                   Pact) signed.

1919                               Montague-Chelmsford Reforms;
                                   Third Anglo-Afghan War.

1935                               Government of India Act of

1940                               Muslim League adopts "Pakistan
                                   Resolution" demanding separate
                                   nation for Muslims of India.
                                   "Two Nations Theory"
                                   articulated by Muslim League
                                   leader Mohammad Ali Jinnah and

1946 August                        Muslim League observes "Direct
                                   Action Day." Widespread
                                   communal rioting spreads to
                                   many parts of India.

1947 June                          Legislation introduced in
                                   British Parliament calling for
                                   independence and partition of
                                   India; communal rioting and
                                   mass movements of population
                                   begin, resulting in next
                                   months in 250,000 deaths and
                                   up to 24 million refugees.


1947 August                        Partition of British India;
                                   India achieves independence
                                   and incorporates West Bengal
                                   and Assam; Pakistan is created
                                   and incorporates East Bengal
                                   (East Wing, or East Pakistan)
                                   and territory in the northwest
                                   (West Wing, or West Pakistan);
                                   Jinnah becomes governor
                                   general of Pakistan; Liaquat
                                   Ali Khan becomes prime

     October                       Start of first Indo-Pakistani
                                   War over sovereignty of

1948 September                     Jinnah dies; Khwaja Nazimuddin
                                   becomes governor general.

1949 January                       United Nations-arranged cease-
                                   fire between Pakistan and
                                   India takes effect.

1951 October                       Liaquat assassinated;
                                   Nazimuddin becomes prime
                                   minister; Ghulam Mohammad
                                   becomes governor general.

1955 August                        Ghulam Mohammad resigns;
                                   succeeded by Iskander Mirza.

     October                       One Unit Plan establishes the
                                   four provinces of West
                                   Pakistan as one administrative

1956 March                         Constitution adopted; Mirza
                                   becomes president.

1958 October                       Mirza abrogates constitution
                                   and declares martial law;
                                   Mirza sent into exile; Chief
                                   Martial Law Administrator
                                   (CMLA) General Mohammad Ayub
                                   Khan assumes presidency.

1965 August                        Start of second Indo-Pakistani
                                   War over Kashmir.

1969 March                         Martial law declared; Ayub
                                   Khan resigns; CMLA General
                                   Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan
                                   assumes presidency.

1970 July                          One Unit Plan abolished; four
                                   provinces reestablished in
                                   West Pakistan.

     December                      First general elections; Awami
                                   League under Mujib secures
                                   absolute majority in new
                                   National Assembly; West
                                   Pakistan-dominated government
                                   declines to convene assembly.

1971 March                         East Pakistan attempts to
                                   secede, beginning civil war;
                                   Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Mujib),
                                   imprisoned in West Pakistan,
                                   declared provisional

     April                         Formal declaration of
                                   independence of Bangladesh
                                   issued; Mujib named president.

     December                      Pakistan launches preemptive
                                   air strikes against India;
                                   India invades East Pakistan;
                                   India recognizes Bangladesh;
                                   Pakistani military forces in
                                   East Pakistan surrender to
                                   Indian armed forces, marking
                                   Bangladeshi independence;
                                   Yahya Khan resigns; Zulfiqar
                                   Ali Bhutto becomes CMLA and

1972 July                          Bhutto and India's prime
                                   minister, Indira Gandhi,
                                   conclude Simla Agreement,
                                   adjusting 1949 cease-fire line
                                   between Pakistan and India and
                                   creating new line of control.

1973 August                        New constitution goes into
                                   effect; Bhutto becomes prime

1976 February                      Pakistan and Bangladesh
                                   establish diplomatic

1977 March                         General elections; massive
                                   victory by Bhutto's party
                                   evokes widespread rioting and

     July                          Army chief of staff, General
                                   Mohammad Zia ul-Haq, appoints
                                   himself CMLA and proclaims
                                   martial law.

1978 September                     Mohammad Zia ul-Haq becomes
                                   nation's sixth president,
                                   replacing Fazal Elahi

1979 February                      Islamic penal code introduced.

     April                         Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto hanged.

     November                      Mob storms and burns down
                                   United States Embassy in
                                   Islamabad, killing two
                                   Americans and two Pakistani
                                   employees; United States
                                   cultural centers in Rawalpindi
                                   and Lahore also torched;
                                   attacks in response to
                                   Iranian-inspired rumors that
                                   United States citizens
                                   responsible for November 20
                                   attack on Grand Mosque in

     December                      Large-scale movements of
                                   Soviet troops and military
                                   equipment into Afghanistan.

1980 January                       United States president Jimmy
                                   Carter pledges military
                                   assistance to help Pakistan
                                   defend itself against Soviet
                                   threat; Carter offers US$400
                                   million, rejected by Zia as

1983 August                        President Zia ul-Haq announces
                                   that martial law will be
                                   lifted in 1985 but warns that
                                   army will retain key role in
                                   future governments.

1985 January                       Non-Islamic banking abolished.

     February                      General elections held for
                                   National Assembly.

     March                         Mohammad Khan Junejo invited
                                   by Zia to form civilian

     July                          Economy declared to be in
                                   conformity with Islam.

1986 August                        Movement for the Restoration
                                   of Democracy (MRD) launches
                                   campaign against government,
                                   demanding new general
                                   elections; Benazir Bhutto
                                   arrested in Karachi.

     December                      New federal cabinet sworn into
                                   office by President Zia with
                                   Mohammad Khan Junejo
                                   continuing as prime minister. 

     May                           Prime Minister Junejo expands
                                   federal government to include
                                   five new ministers and three
                                   new ministers of state;
                                   President Zia dismisses Junejo
                                   government, dissolves national
                                   and provincial assemblies, and
                                   orders new elections to be
                                   held within ninety days.

     August                        Zia, the United States
                                   ambassador to Pakistan, and
                                   top army officials killed in
                                   mysterious airplane crash near
                                   Bahawalpur in Punjab; Ghulam
                                   Ishaq Khan, chairman of
                                   Senate, sworn in as acting
                                   president; General Mirza Aslam
                                   Beg becomes chief of the army

     October                       Salman Rushdie's novel,
                                   The Satanic
                                   Verses, banned in
                                   Pakistan; joint United States-
                                   Pakistani investigatory
                                   committee concludes that Zia's
                                   death was caused by "criminal
                                   act of sabotage."

     November                      Elections held for National
                                   Assembly; Pakistan People's
                                   Party (PPP) wins ninety-three
                                   out of 207 seats contested.

     December                      Benazir Bhutto sworn in as
                                   first female prime minister of
                                   a Muslim nation; PPP and MQM
                                   parties sign "Karachi
                                   Declaration," an accord to
                                   restore peace in Sindh;
                                   Pakistan and India sign
                                   accords at South Asian
                                   Association for Regional
                                   Cooperation (SAARC) summit in
                                   Islamabad, including agreement
                                   not to attack each other's
                                   nuclear facilities.

     June                          Combined Opposition Parties
                                   (COP), consisting of most
                                   opposition groups, formed in
                                   National Assembly, with Ghulam
                                   Mustafa Jatoi as leader.

February                           Soviet Union completes
                                   withdrawal of troops from

September                          Pakistan's largest ever
                                   military exercise, Zarb- e -
                                   Momin (Sword of the Faithful),

October                            Pakistan rejoins Commonwealth
                                   of Nations.

December                           Ethnic riots in Sindh claim
                                   scores of lives.

1990 May-June                      Ethnic troubles mount in
                                   Sindh; rift develops between
                                   PPP and coalition partners.

     August                        President Ghulam Ishaq Khan di
                                   smisses Prime Minister Benazir
                                   Bhutto, her cabinet, and
                                   National Assembly; orders new
                                   elections for October 24,
                                   1990; Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi
                                   becomes caretaker prime

     October                       United States president George
                                   Bush is unable to deliver
                                   annual certification that
                                   Pakistan does not possess
                                   nuclear weapons as condition
                                   of continued assistance and
                                   arms and technology transfers,
                                   leading to cutoff of most aid.
                                   National elections held;
                                   Bhutto's PPP loses to
                                   coalition of rightist parties.

     November                      Mian Nawaz Sharif elected
                                   prime minister. 

1991 February                      Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif
                                   liberalizes economy, lifts
                                   controls on foreign currency
                                   entering country, and
                                   announces policies to
                                   encourage new investment;
                                   numerous pro-Iraq
                                   demonstrations and widespread
                                   public opposition to Prime
                                   Minister Nawaz Sharif's
                                   support of Desert Storm but
                                   pro-United Nations stance

     May                           Shariat Bill is adopted by
                                   National Assembly.

     July                          Opposition members call upon
                                   president to dismiss
                                   government because of
                                   deteriorating law and order
                                   situation, particularly in

1992 December                      Babri Mosque in Ayodya, India,
                                   destroyed by Hindu
                                   fundamentalists seeking to
                                   build Hindu temple on
                                   contested site; communal
                                   violence mounts over incident;
                                   Pakistan asks Indian
                                   government to protect Muslims
                                   in India.

1993 April                         President Ishaq Khan dismisses
                                   government of Prime Minister
                                   Nawaz Sharif, citing

     July                          President Ishaq Khan and Prime
                                   Minister Nawaz Sharif resign
                                   under pressure from military;
                                   World Bank officer, Moeen
                                   Qureshi, named caretaker prime
                                   minister pending elections in

     October                       Benazir Bhutto's PPP wins slim
                                   margin in national elections
                                   and builds coalition
                                   government; Benazir appointed
                                   prime minister. 

     November                      PPP stalwart, Farooq Leghari,
                                   defeats acting President
                                   Wassim Sajjad and becomes

Data as of April 1994

BackgroundThe Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars - in 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. The dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but discussions and confidence-building measures have helped the two countries begin to work through their issues. In February 2008, Pakistan held parliamentary elections and in September 2008, after the resignation of former President MUSHARRAF, elected Asif Ali ZARDARI to the presidency. Pakistani government and military leaders are struggling to control domestic insurgents, many of whom are located in the tribal areas adjacent to the border with Afghanistan. India-Pakistan relations have been rocky since the November 2008 Mumbai attacks, but both countries are taking small steps to put relations back on track.
LocationSouthern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
Area(sq km)total: 796,095 sq km
land: 770,875 sq km
water: 25,220 sq km
Geographic coordinates30 00 N, 70 00 E
Land boundaries(km)total: 6,774 km
border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km

Coastline(km)1,046 km

Climatemostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north

Elevation extremes(m)lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
Natural resourcesland, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Land use(%)arable land: 24.44%
permanent crops: 0.84%
other: 74.72% (2005)

Irrigated land(sq km)182,300 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources(cu km)233.8 cu km (2003)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 169.39 cu km/yr (2%/2%/96%)
per capita: 1,072 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazardsfrequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
Environment - current issueswater pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - notecontrols Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent
Population176,242,949 (July 2009 est.)
Age structure(%)0-14 years: 37.2% (male 33,739,547/female 31,868,065)
15-64 years: 58.6% (male 52,849,607/female 50,378,198)
65 years and over: 4.2% (male 3,475,927/female 3,931,605) (2009 est.)
Median age(years)total: 20.8 years
male: 20.6 years
female: 21 years (2009 est.)
Population growth rate(%)1.947% (2009 est.)
Birth rate(births/1,000 population)27.62 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Death rate(deaths/1,000 population)7.68 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

Net migration rate(migrant(s)/1,000 population)-0.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Urbanization(%)urban population: 36% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio(male(s)/female)at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Infant mortality rate(deaths/1,000 live births)total: 65.14 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 65.24 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 65.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth(years)total population: 64.49 years
male: 63.4 years
female: 65.64 years (2009 est.)

Total fertility rate(children born/woman)3.6 children born/woman (2009 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Pakistani(s)
adjective: Pakistani
Ethnic groups(%)Punjabi 44.68%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.42%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.38%, Muhagirs 7.57%, Balochi 3.57%, other 6.28%

Religions(%)Muslim 95% (Sunni 75%, Shia 20%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 5%
Languages(%)Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%

Country nameconventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
conventional short form: Pakistan
local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan
local short form: Pakistan
former: West Pakistan
Government typefederal republic
Capitalname: Islamabad
geographic coordinates: 33 42 N, 73 10 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, in 2009 - begins third Wednesday in April; ends first Sunday in November; note - a new policy of daylight saving time was initiated by the government in 2008; the specific date of the start of DST has varied over the last two years
Administrative divisions4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab, Sindh
note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of two administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan
Constitution12 April 1973; suspended 5 July 1977, restored 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999, restored in stages in 2002; amended 31 December 2003; suspended 3 November 2007; restored on 15 December 2007

Legal systembased on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Suffrage18 years of age; universal; joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims
Executive branchchief of state: President Asif Ali ZARDARI (since 9 September 2008)
head of government: Prime Minister Syed Yousuf Raza GILANI (since 25 March 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the advice of the prime minister
elections: the president is elected by secret ballot through an Electoral College comprising the members of the Senate, National Assembly, and the provincial assemblies for a five-year term; election last held on 6 September 2008 (next to be held not later than 2013); note - any person who is a Muslim and not less than 45 years of age and is qualified to be elected as a member of the National Assembly can contest the presidential election; the prime minister is selected by the National Assembly; election last held on 24 March 2008
election results: Asif Ali ZARDARI elected president; ZARDARI 481 votes, SIDDIQUE 153 votes, SYED 44 votes; Syed Yousuf Raza GILANI elected prime minister; GILANI 264 votes, Pervaiz ELAHI 42 votes; several abstentions

Legislative branchbicameral parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (100 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies and the territories' representatives in the National Assembly to serve six-year terms; one half are elected every three years) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members elected by popular vote; 60 seats reserved for women; 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims; serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 3 March 2009 (next to be held in March 2012); National Assembly - last held on 18 February 2008 with by-elections on 26 June 2008 (next to be held in 2013)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPPP 27, PML-Q 21, MMA 9, PML-N 7, ANP 6, MQM 6, JUI-F 4, BNP-A 2, JWP 1, NPP 1, PKMAP 1, PML-F 1, PPP 1, independents 13; National Assembly - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party - PPPP 124, PML-N 91, PML 54, MQM 25, ANP 13, MMA 7, PML-F 5, BNP-A 1, NPP 1, PPP-S 1, independents 17; note - 3 seats remain unfilled

Judicial branchSupreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Sharia Court

Political pressure groups and leadersother: military (most important political force); ulema (clergy); landowners; industrialists; small merchants
Flag descriptiongreen with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

Economy - overviewPakistan, an impoverished and underdeveloped country, has suffered from decades of internal political disputes, low levels of foreign investment, and declining exports of manufactures. Faced with untenable budgetary deficits, high inflation, and hemorrhaging foreign exchange reserves, the government agreed to an International Monetary Fund Standby Arrangement in November 2008. Between 2004-07, GDP growth in the 6-8% range was spurred by gains in the industrial and service sectors, despite severe electricity shortfalls. Poverty levels decreased by 10% since 2001, and Islamabad steadily raised development spending in recent years. In 2008 the fiscal deficit - a result of chronically low tax collection and increased spending - exceeded Islamabad's target of 4% of GDP. Inflation remains the top concern among the public, jumping from 7.7% in 2007 to 20.8% in 2008, primarily because of rising world fuel and commodity prices. In addition, the Pakistani rupee has depreciated significantly as a result of political and economic instability.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$431.2 billion (2008 est.)
$417 billion (2007 est.)
$393.4 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate)$164.6 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate(%)3.4% (2008 est.)
6% (2007 est.)
6% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$2,500 (2008 est.)
$2,500 (2007 est.)
$2,400 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector(%)agriculture: 20.4%
industry: 26.6%
services: 53% (2008 est.)
Labor force50.58 million
note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation(%)agriculture: 43%
industry: 20.3%
services: 36.6% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate(%)13.6% (2008 est.)
5.6% (2007 est.)
note: substantial underemployment exists
Population below poverty line(%)24% (FY05/06 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share(%)lowest 10%: 3.9%
highest 10%: 26.5% (2005)
Distribution of family income - Gini index30.6 (FY07/08)
41 (FY98/99)
Investment (gross fixed)(% of GDP)20% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $22.3 billion
expenditures: $32.35 billion (2008 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)(%)20.3% (2008 est.)
7.6% (2007 est.)

Stock of money$NA (31 December 2008)
$52.76 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of quasi money$NA (31 December 2008)
$18.42 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of domestic credit$NA (31 December 2008)
$65.05 billion (31 December 2007)
Market value of publicly traded shares$23.49 billion (31 December 2008)
$70.26 billion (31 December 2007)
$45.52 billion (31 December 2006)
Economic aid - recipient$1.666 billion (2005)

Public debt(% of GDP)51.2% of GDP (2008 est.)
71.4% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
Industriestextiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp

Industrial production growth rate(%)4.6% (2008 est.)

Current account balance-$15.68 billion (2008 est.)
-$8.297 billion (2007 est.)
Exports$21.09 billion (2008 est.)
$18.12 billion (2007 est.)

Exports - commodities(%)textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs
Exports - partners(%)US 16%, UAE 11.7%, Afghanistan 8.6%, UK 4.5%, China 4.2% (2008)
Imports$38.19 billion (2008 est.)
$28.76 billion (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities(%)petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
Imports - partners(%)China 14.1%, Saudi Arabia 12%, UAE 11.2%, Kuwait 5.4%, India 4.8%, US 4.7%, Malaysia 4.1% (2008)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$8.903 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$15.69 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external$46.39 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$38.8 billion (31 December 2007 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$25.44 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$20.01 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$1.017 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$982 million (31 December 2007 est.)
Exchange ratesPakistani rupees (PKR) per US dollar - 70.64 (2008 est.), 60.6295 (2007), 60.35 (2006), 59.515 (2005), 58.258 (2004)

Currency (code)Pakistani rupee (PKR)

Telephones - main lines in use4.546 million (2008)
Telephones - mobile cellular91.44 million (2009)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the telecommunications infrastructure is improving dramatically with foreign and domestic investments in fixed-line and mobile networks; mobile-cellular subscribership has skyrocketed, reaching some 91 million in 2009, up from only about 300,000 in 2000; fiber systems are being constructed throughout the country to aid in network growth; main line availability has risen only marginally over the same period and there are still difficulties getting main line service to rural areas
domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks
international: country code - 92; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2009)
Internet country code.pk
Internet users18.5 million (2008)
Airports145 (2009)
Pipelines(km)gas 10,402 km; oil 2,076 km; refined products 792 km (2008)
Roadways(km)total: 259,197 km
paved: 172,827 km (includes 711 km of expressways)
unpaved: 86,370 km (2007)

Ports and terminalsKarachi, Port Muhammad Bin Qasim
Military branchesArmy (includes National Guard), Navy (includes Marines and Maritime Security Agency), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fiza'ya) (2008)
Military service age and obligation(years of age)17-23 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age 18; the Pakistani Air Force and Pakistani Navy have inducted their first female pilots and sailors (2009)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 42,633,765
females age 16-49: 40,114,017 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 33,690,322
females age 16-49: 32,602,910 (2009 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 2,089,936
female: 1,964,090 (2009 est.)
Military expenditures(% of GDP)3% of GDP (2007 est.)
Disputes - internationalvarious talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed stand-off in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State; by 2005, Pakistan, with UN assistance, repatriated 2.3 million Afghan refugees leaving slightly more than a million, many of whom remain at their own choosing; Pakistan has proposed and Afghanistan protests construction of a fence and laying of mines along portions of their porous border; Pakistan has sent troops into remote tribal areas to monitor and control the border with Afghanistan and to stem terrorist or other illegal activities

Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 1,043,984 (Afghanistan)
IDPs: undetermined (government strikes on Islamic militants in South Waziristan); 34,000 (October 2005 earthquake; most of those displaced returned to their home villages in the spring of 2006) (2007)
Electricity - production(kWh)90.8 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - production by source(%)fossil fuel: 68.8%
hydro: 28.2%
nuclear: 3%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption(kWh)72.2 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - exports(kWh)0 kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports(kWh)0 kWh (2008 est.)
Oil - production(bbl/day)61,870 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - consumption(bbl/day)383,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - exports(bbl/day)30,090 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - imports(bbl/day)319,500 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - proved reserves(bbl)339 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
Natural gas - production(cu m)37.5 billion cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - consumption(cu m)37.5 billion cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - exports(cu m)0 cu m (2008)
Natural gas - proved reserves(cu m)885.3 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate(%)0.1% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS96,000 (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths5,100 (2007 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
Literacy(%)definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 49.9%
male: 63%
female: 36% (2005 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)(years)total: 7 years
male: 7 years
female: 6 years (2006)
Education expenditures(% of GDP)2.6% of GDP (2006)

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