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Nigeria-Navy





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Nigeria Index

[JPEG]

Naval gunnery exercise at sea
Courtesy Embassy of Nigeria, Washington

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Minister of Defense and chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff observes first Naval Small Arms Competition at Ibadan, 1989.
Courtesy Embassy of Nigeria, Washington

Nigeria's navy dated to 1914, when the northern and southern marine detachments were merged to form the Nigerian Marine Department. In 1956 eleven small boats and harbor craft and about 200 officers and men were transferred from the them defunct Nigerian Marine to an independent naval force. In 1958 the British Parliament formally reconstituted the colony's small Naval Defence Force as the Royal Nigerian Navy. The term Royal was dropped when Nigeria became a republic. The 1964 Navy Act assigned to the navy the tasks of defending territorial waters, of training in naval duties, of conducting hydrographic surveys, of assisting in the enforcement of customs laws, and of undertaking other missions assigned by the government. Its specific tasks in the 1980s included defense against seaborne attack and protection of international shipping, and of offshore oil and sea resources, particularly prevention or prosecution of illegal bunkering and lifting of petroleum.

Administrative and operational control of the navy was vested in the chief of naval staff (CNS), under the broad policy direction of the Navy Board. The latter was composed of the armed forces commander in chief as chairman, the chief of General Staff, the minister of defense, and the CNS as members, and the director general of the Ministry of Defence as secretary. In the late 1980s, naval headquarters at Lagos was organized into five staff branches under branch chiefs, who were principal staff officers responsible to the CNS: accounts and budget; logistics (responsible for provisioning, procurement, and maintenance of all equipment and installations, with directorates for supply, ship spares, projects, and armament supply); matériel; operations (responsible for daily operations and training, with directorates for plans, operations, intelligence, hydrography, and weapons and tactics); and personnel. Each directorate was headed by a director whose immediate subordinates were staff officers.

During 1990 naval headquarters was restructured into "corps- like" organizations. By the end of 1990, five such corps had been established: the Fleet Maintenance Corps, the Naval Matériel Supply Corps, the Building and Engineering Service Corps, the Naval Information Management Corps, and the Naval Ordnance Corps. The intent of this reorganization was to make headquarters function in a manner that resembled field formations.

During the 1970s, the navy was organized into three commands: the Western Naval Command and the Flotilla Command headquartered at Apapa near Lagos, and the Eastern Naval Command based in Calabar. The Flotilla Command was responsible for operations and for deployment of warships, the Western Naval Command for most of the logistics and repair facilities, and the Eastern Naval Command for naval bases and training facilities. The defects of this functional type of organization were the vulnerable concentration of ships and command facilities at Apapa, and the lack of warships based in the east where oil resources were concentrated. The naval establishment was therefore reorganized in 1983 by abolishing the Flotilla Command and by regrouping the warships into eastern and western fleets under independent commands.

In 1990 the navy was composed of the two geographical fleet commands and the Naval Training Command (see Training , this ch.). The latter, established in November 1986, included all training facilities, some of which were collocated with fleet commands. The senior Western Naval Command, commanded by a rear admiral, had operational responsibility for the area from the Brass River, in the Niger Delta, to the border with Benin. Its main shore establishments were Nigerian Naval Station (NNS) Olokun; NNS Quorra in Apapa; and the Navy Helicopter Squadron, the Naval Hospital, the Navy Secondary School, and the Navy Diving School, all at Ojo near Lagos. West of the Niger Delta were NNS Umalokum, an operational base in Warri, which was to be expanded with a shipbuilders' workshop and jetties to accommodate ships of up to 2,000 deadweight tons; and NNS Uriapele, commissioned in 1986 as a logistics base, and the Navy Technical Training Centre, both at Sapele.

The Eastern Naval Command, usually headed by a commodore, had operational responsibility from the Brass River to the Cameroon border. Its principal shore establishments were the operational base NNS Anansa, and the Navy Supply School in Calabar. In the Port Harcourt area were NNS Akaso at Borokiri, a training base; the Nigerian Naval College near Bonny; NNS Okemiri, a naval base commissioned in late 1986 in the Port Harcourt area; the Navy Hydrographic School at Borokiri; and the Basic Seamanship Training School in Port Harcourt. Other naval bases were located at James Town and Bonny, and a special forces base on the Escravos River.

The largest maritime force in West Africa, the Nigerian navy had about 500 officers and 4,500 enlisted men and women in 1990. Its balanced fleet of modern warships, auxiliaries, and service craft was acquired from Britain, the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany), France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United States. The fleet consisted of two frigates, six missile craft, two corvettes, eight large patrol craft, forty-one coastal patrol craft, two minesweepers, two amphibious vessel, and various support ships (see table 18, Appendix). However, most ships were in disrepair and had not been decked since the early 1980s.

A naval aviation arm was inaugurated in May 1986 with three Westland Lynx Mk 89 MR/SR helicopters for maritime reconnaissance, search and rescue, and antisubmarine warfare, stationed at Navytown at Ojo, near Lagos. The first naval air station of its kind in black Africa, Navytown provided ground support for helicopters deployed aboard the multipurpose frigate flagship, Aradu. The navy lacked only submarines; negotiations reportedly had begun to acquire one, but fiscal constraints precluded procurement. Finally, the small Nigerian Coast Guard of about eighteen patrol craft was controlled and manned by the navy.

Nigeria increasingly asserted its maritime interests and long-range goal of becoming a regional sea power. Although its coastline is only 853 kilometers, the seaward environment is of crucial importance to the nation's economic life: its registered merchant marine consisted of about 220 vessels; Nigeria accounted for 70 percent of seaborne trade in West Africa and Central Africa; and 70 percent of its petroleum production--oil accounted for about 87 percent of the country's exports in 1988--came from six offshore oil platforms. Two official acts set forth Nigeria's maritime interests and policy. Decree Number 10 of April 1987 promulgated a national shipping policy, and the Navy Board's approval of a maritime defence strategy, announced in April 1988, shifted Nigeria's strategic focus toward the South Atlantic because of external threats to its economic lifeline to the southeast. Operational preparedness to carry out this new strategy was demonstrated by the first fleet-level exercise involving both Eastern and Western Naval commands in 1987 after a joint training exercise, including a cruise to neighboring African states. Nigeria also expanded international naval cooperation, hosting visits by Brazilian task forces in 1985 and 1986, and holding joint naval exercises with Brazil in March 1987 to gain experience in antisubmarine warfare.

Nigerian naval strategists conceptualized the navy's maritime mission as defense in depth within three overlapping perimeters. Level One, the highest priority, was coastal defense and inshore operations involving surveillance, early warning, antismuggling and piracy operations; protecting offshore oil installations; search and rescue; and policing out to 100 nautical miles. Level Two encompassed the maintenance of a naval presence in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) for monitoring, policing, and sea control; and for coordinating regional efforts, such as prevention of poaching, dumping of hazardous materials or toxic waste, and marine research. Level Three, the outer ring, involved surveillance, intelligence-gathering, training and flag-showing cruises; independent and joint exercises; and allied operations.

The navy's maritime defense roles, officially known as the Trident Strategy, comprised three elements contributing toward national military strategy. The first element was subregional sea control to defend Nigeria's national and maritime interests and to execute the national shipping policy by protecting sea-lanes. The second element, coastal defense, included protection of the coastal zone's approaches, territorial waters, and the EEZ. In the third element, the navy was to provide adequate sealift and gunfire support to the army in amphibious operations. This ambitious strategy may require increased resources in the future. In an effort to increase navy appropriations, in 1988 the service began an impressive public relations effort, including a "navy- citizens dialogue" to promote the navy as a cost-effective investment and publications extolling the navy's contributions to national security. It also published in 1989 a book entitled Sea Power: Agenda for National Survival and an article on Nigeria's naval roles and aspirations in the Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute. In a 1990 article in the African Defence Journal, the Nigerian naval information director called for strong naval or coastal surveillance capabilities to combat maritime security threats and to realize "tremendous indirect economic gains" by defending vital maritime and fisheries interest against unauthorized foreign exploitation.

Data as of June 1991



BackgroundBritish influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy; independence came in 1960. Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history.
LocationWestern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Area(sq km)total: 923,768 sq km
land: 910,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
Geographic coordinates10 00 N, 8 00 E
Land boundaries(km)total: 4,047 km
border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km

Coastline(km)853 km

Climatevaries; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north

Elevation extremes(m)lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
Natural resourcesnatural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
Land use(%)arable land: 33.02%
permanent crops: 3.14%
other: 63.84% (2005)

Irrigated land(sq km)2,820 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources(cu km)286.2 cu km (2003)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 8.01 cu km/yr (21%/10%/69%)
per capita: 61 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazardsperiodic droughts; flooding
Environment - current issuessoil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notethe Niger enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea
Population149,229,090
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2009 est.)
Age structure(%)0-14 years: 41.5% (male 31,624,050/female 30,242,637)
15-64 years: 55.5% (male 42,240,641/female 40,566,672)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 2,211,840/female 2,343,250) (2009 est.)
Median age(years)total: 19 years
male: 18.9 years
female: 19.1 years (2009 est.)
Population growth rate(%)1.999% (2009 est.)
Birth rate(births/1,000 population)36.65 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Death rate(deaths/1,000 population)16.56 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

Net migration rate(migrant(s)/1,000 population)-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Urbanization(%)urban population: 48% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 3.8% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio(male(s)/female)at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Infant mortality rate(deaths/1,000 live births)total: 94.35 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 100.38 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 87.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth(years)total population: 46.94 years
male: 46.16 years
female: 47.76 years (2009 est.)

Total fertility rate(children born/woman)4.91 children born/woman (2009 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian
Ethnic groups(%)Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%

Religions(%)Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
Languages(%)English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani

Country nameconventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria
Government typefederal republic
Capitalname: Abuja
geographic coordinates: 9 05 N, 7 32 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nassarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
Constitutionadopted 5 May 1999; effective 29 May 1999

Legal systembased on English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA (since 29 May 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA (since 29 May 2007)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council
elections: president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 21 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2011)
election results: Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA elected president; percent of vote - Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA 69.8%, Muhammadu BUHARI 18.7%, Atiku ABUBAKAR 7.5%, Orji Uzor KALU 1.7%, other 2.3%

Legislative branchbicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (109 seats, 3 from each state plus 1 from Abuja; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and House of Representatives (360 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 21 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2011); House of Representatives - last held 21 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2011)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PDP 53.7%, ANPP 27.9%, AD 9.7%, other 8.7%; seats by party - PDP 76, ANPP 27, AD 6; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDP 54.5%, ANPP 27.4%, AD 8.8%, UNPP 2.8%, NPD 1.9%, APGA 1.6%, PRP 0.8%; seats by party - PDP 76, ANPP 27, AD 6, UNPP 2, APGA 2, NPD 1, PRP 1, vacant 1

Judicial branchSupreme Court (judges recommended by the National Judicial Council and appointed by the president); Federal Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the federal government from a pool of judges recommended by the National Judicial Council)

Political pressure groups and leadersAcademic Staff Union for Universities or ASUU; Campaign for Democracy or CD; Civil Liberties Organization or CLO; Committee for the Defense of Human Rights or CDHR; Constitutional Right Project or CRP; Human Right Africa; National Association of Democratic Lawyers or NADL; National Association of Nigerian Students or NANS; Nigerian Bar Association or NBA; Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC; Nigerian Medical Association or NMA; the Press; Universal Defenders of Democracy or UDD
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, ECOWAS, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURCAT, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green

Economy - overviewOil-rich Nigeria, long hobbled by political instability, corruption, inadequate infrastructure, and poor macroeconomic management, has undertaken several reforms over the past decade. Nigeria's former military rulers failed to diversify the economy away from its overdependence on the capital-intensive oil sector, which provides 95% of foreign exchange earnings and about 80% of budgetary revenues. Following the signing of an IMF stand-by agreement in August 2000, Nigeria received a debt-restructuring deal from the Paris Club and a $1 billion credit from the IMF, both contingent on economic reforms. Nigeria pulled out of its IMF program in April 2002, after failing to meet spending and exchange rate targets, making it ineligible for additional debt forgiveness from the Paris Club. Since 2008 the government has begun showing the political will to implement the market-oriented reforms urged by the IMF, such as to modernize the banking system, to curb inflation by blocking excessive wage demands, and to resolve regional disputes over the distribution of earnings from the oil industry. In 2003, the government began deregulating fuel prices, announced the privatization of the country's four oil refineries, and instituted the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy, a domestically designed and run program modeled on the IMF's Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility for fiscal and monetary management. In November 2005, Abuja won Paris Club approval for a debt-relief deal that eliminated $18 billion of debt in exchange for $12 billion in payments - a total package worth $30 billion of Nigeria's total $37 billion external debt. The deal requires Nigeria to be subject to stringent IMF reviews. Based largely on increased oil exports and high global crude prices, GDP rose strongly in 2007 and 2008. President YAR'ADUA has pledged to continue the economic reforms of his predecessor with emphasis on infrastructure improvements. Infrastructure is the main impediment to growth. The government is working toward developing stronger public-private partnerships for electricity and roads.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$336.2 billion (2008 est.)
$319.3 billion (2007 est.)
$300.1 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate)$207.1 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate(%)5.3% (2008 est.)
6.4% (2007 est.)
6.2% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$2,300 (2008 est.)
$2,200 (2007 est.)
$2,100 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector(%)agriculture: 18.1%
industry: 50.8%
services: 31.1% (2008 est.)
Labor force51.04 million (2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation(%)agriculture: 70%
industry: 10%
services: 20% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate(%)4.9% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line(%)70% (2007 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share(%)lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 32.4% (2004)
Distribution of family income - Gini index43.7 (2003)
50.6 (1997)
Investment (gross fixed)(% of GDP)21.7% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $19.76 billion
expenditures: $24.72 billion (2008 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)(%)11.6% (2008 est.)
5.4% (2007 est.)

Stock of money$35.29 billion (31 December 2008)
$26.82 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of quasi money$32.04 billion (31 December 2008)
$22.78 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of domestic credit$49.51 billion (31 December 2008)
$35.68 billion (31 December 2007)
Market value of publicly traded shares$49.8 billion (31 December 2008)
$86.35 billion (31 December 2007)
$32.82 billion (31 December 2006)
Economic aid - recipient$6.437 billion (2005)

Public debt(% of GDP)13.4% of GDP (2008 est.)
20% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - productscocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
Industriescrude oil, coal, tin, columbite; palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel, small commercial ship construction and repair

Industrial production growth rate(%)2.8% (2008 est.)

Current account balance$3.877 billion (2008 est.)
$2.203 billion (2007 est.)
Exports$76.03 billion (2008 est.)
$61.82 billion (2007 est.)

Exports - commodities(%)petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber
Exports - partners(%)US 41.4%, India 10.4%, Brazil 9.4%, Spain 7.2%, France 4.6% (2008)
Imports$46.3 billion (2008 est.)
$38.8 billion (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities(%)machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
Imports - partners(%)China 13.8%, Netherlands 9.6%, US 8.4%, UK 5.3%, South Korea 5.2%, France 4.3% (2008)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$53 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$51.33 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external$9.996 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$8.007 billion (31 December 2007 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$68.84 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$58.84 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$13.02 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$12.72 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Exchange ratesnairas (NGN) per US dollar - 117.8 (2008 est.), 127.46 (2007), 127.38 (2006), 132.59 (2005), 132.89 (2004)

Currency (code)naira (NGN)

Telephones - main lines in use1.308 million (2008)
Telephones - mobile cellular62.988 million (2008)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: further expansion and modernization of the fixed-line telephone network is needed
domestic: the addition of a second fixed-line provider in 2002 resulted in faster growth but subscribership remains only about 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services growing rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple cellular service providers operate nationally with subscribership reaching 45 per 100 persons in 2008
international: country code - 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2008)
Internet country code.ng
Internet users11 million (2008)
Airports56 (2009)
Pipelines(km)condensate 21 km; gas 2,560 km; liquid petroleum gas 97 km; oil 3,396 km; refined products 4,090 km (2008)
Roadways(km)total: 193,200 km
paved: 28,980 km
unpaved: 164,220 km (2004)

Ports and terminalsBonny Inshore Terminal, Calabar, Lagos
Military branchesNigerian Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (2008)
Military service age and obligation(years of age)18 years of age for voluntary military service (2007)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 31,929,204
females age 16-49: 30,638,979 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 19,763,535
females age 16-49: 18,850,650 (2009 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 1,697,030
female: 1,618,561 (2009 est.)
Military expenditures(% of GDP)1.5% of GDP (2006)
Disputes - internationalJoint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phase-out of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries

Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 5,778 (Liberia)
IDPs: undetermined (communal violence between Christians and Muslims since President OBASANJO's election in 1999; displacement is mostly short-term) (2007)
Electricity - production(kWh)21.92 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - production by source(%)fossil fuel: 61.9%
hydro: 38.1%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption(kWh)19.21 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - exports(kWh)0 kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports(kWh)0 kWh (2008 est.)
Oil - production(bbl/day)2.169 million bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - consumption(bbl/day)286,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - exports(bbl/day)2.327 million bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - imports(bbl/day)170,000 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - proved reserves(bbl)36.22 billion bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
Natural gas - production(cu m)32.82 billion cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - consumption(cu m)12.28 billion cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - exports(cu m)20.55 billion cu m (2008)
Natural gas - proved reserves(cu m)5.215 trillion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate(%)3.1% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS2.6 million (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths170,000 (2007 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria and yellow fever
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: one of the most highly endemic areas for Lassa fever
water contact disease: leptospirosis and shistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies
Literacy(%)definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 68%
male: 75.7%
female: 60.6% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)(years)total: 8 years
male: 9 years
female: 7 years (2004)
Education expenditures(% of GDP)0.9% of GDP (1991)








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