Mongabay.com seeks to raise interest in and appreciation of wild lands and wildlife, while examining the impact of emerging trends in climate, technology, economics, and finance on conservation and development (more)
General Character: Predominantly rural and
market-oriented economic liberalization measures beginning
stimulated economic growth. Policy reforms continue,
decentralizing and expanding private-sector economy;
agricultural collectivization policy and ending
introducing foreign investment code; and restructuring
system. Agriculture accounts for almost 56 percent gross
product (GDP) and approximately 85-90 percent of workforce
estimate). 1989 unemployment estimate 21 percent.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP): Estimates vary.
million, US$295 income per capita (1993 estimate); from
US$335 per capita (1994 estimate); real growth rate from
percent to 5.9 percent. Composition of GDP agriculture and
forestry, approximately 56 percent; industry including
construction, approximately 17 percent; services,
percent; and import duties, 2 percent (1993 estimate). GDP
targeted at 7 percent for fiscal year (FY) 1993-94. US$4.1
purchasing power equivalent (1993 estimate).
Industry: Almost no industrial production
Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing: Rice main
tobacco, coffee also grown.
Resources: Tin and gypsum most important mineral
resources although exploitation on a small scale;
from hydroelectric power; electricity exported to
Foreign Trade: Total exports US$133
board (f.o.b.) (1993 estimate); primarily to France,
Japan, Russia, Thailand, Vietnam, and United States.
exports timber and wood products US$42 million; textiles
garments, US$27 million; assembled motorcycles and other
US$20 million; electricity, US$16 million (1993 estimate).
imports US$266 million--cost, insurance, and freight
estimate); primarily from China, France, Italy, Japan,
Thailand, and Vietnam; increased by approximately 20.5
1993. Principal imports petroleum, food, vehicles,
consumer goods. US$353.2 million total (1993 estimate).
Balance of Payments: Record trade deficit of
US$150 million in 1993. Foreign debt US$1.1 billion (1992
Foreign Aid: Approximately US$167 million in
totally dependent on foreign assistance for development
financing deficit on current account balance. Major
partners formerly communist countries, particularly
Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon) members until 1990;
then, Australia, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, and
agencies, primarily the World Bank and Asian Development
Currency and Exchange Rate: Kip. In 1992
averaged US$1=K705; in June 1994, estimated average
Fiscal Year: October 1 to September 30.
Data as of July 1994