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Israel-MILITARY COOPERATION WITH THE UNITED STATES





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Israel Index

The military partnership between the United States and Israel was by 1988 a flourishing relationship that encompassed not only military assistance but also intelligence sharing, joint weapons research, and purchases of Israeli equipment by the United States armed forces. During the early years of Israeli independence, the United States had been reluctant to become a major source of arms, a position dictated by the view that the United States could best contribute to resolving the Arab-Israeli dispute by avoiding identification with either party to the conflict. The United States continued to deal with Israeli arms requests on a case-by-case basis until the October 1973 War, when it became virtually the sole outside source of sophisticated weaponry. The high level of United States aid was intended to insure that Israel maintained the capability to defend itself against any potential combination of aggressors and to give Israel the confidence to enter into negotiations with its Arab neighbors.

Israel had great difficulty in obtaining the modern arms it needed until the mid-1950s, when France became its main supplier. Even after the announcement of a major arms agreement between Egypt and Czechoslovakia in 1955, the United States was unmoved by the argument that this development justified deliveries to Israel to maintain a balance of forces in the Middle East. It did, however, relax its stance by authorizing the transfer to Israel of Mystère IV fighter planes manufactured in France with United States assistance and F-86 Sabre jets manufactured in Canada under United States license. In 1958 the United States consented to a modest sale of 100 recoilless rifles to help Israel defend itself from neighbors receiving shipments of both Soviet- and Western-made tanks.

Sales of Hawk antiaircraft missiles in 1962 and M-48 Patton tanks in 1966 represented a shift in policy, but were justified as "occasional, selective sales" to balance the large shipments of sophisticated Soviet arms to Egypt, Syria, and Iraq. A more decisive turn in United States policy occurred in 1968 when, following the failure of efforts to reach an understanding with the Soviet Union on limiting the supply of arms to the Middle East and the imposition of a complete embargo by France on arms sales to Israel, Washington approved the sale of fifty F-4 Phantom jets.

By the early 1970s, the flow of United States military supplies to Israel had acquired considerable momentum, although it was not always considered sufficient by Israeli leaders concerned with Egypt's aggressive actions along the Suez Canal. In 1972 and 1973, the Israeli air force was bolstered by additional deliveries of F-4 aircraft as well as A-4 Skyhawks. After the outbreak of the October 1973 War, President Richard M. Nixon ordered the airlift of urgently needed military supplies to Israel. President Nixon followed this action by seeking from Congress US$2.2 billion in emergency security assistance including, for the first time, direct aid grants. By 1975 a steady flow of aircraft, Hawk missiles, self-propelled artillery, M-48 and M-60 tanks, armored personnel carriers, helicopters, and antitank missiles enabled Israel to recover from the heavy equipment losses suffered during the war. For the first time, the United States government approved the sale to Israel of more advanced F-15 and F-16 interceptor aircraft.

In conjunction with the IDF redeployment following the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty of 1979, the United States provided US$3.2 billion in special aid. More than one-third of this amount was used to finance the construction of two airbases in the Negev, replacing three bases evacuated in the Sinai. Egypt also benefited from a vastly increased level of aid; but Israel sharply disputed Washington's later package proposal to sell US$4.8 billion worth of aircraft to Israel, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia. Israel's objections to the delivery of sophisticated fighter aircraft to Saudi Arabia grew stronger when the United States decided in 1981 to allow Saudi Arabia to purchase airborne warning and control system (AWACS) aircraft.

In 1983 the United States and Israel established the Joint Political-Military Group (JPMG) to address the threat to American and Israeli military interests in the Middle East posed by the Soviet Union. The JPMG contemplated joint military planning, combined exercises, and the prepositioning of United States military equipment in Israel. In the same year, the United States agreed to assist Israel in constructing its own Lavi fighter aircraft by furnishing technology, engines, flight controls, and other components. Although the United States was committed to contribute US$1.75 billion to the Lavi, the project was cancelled in 1987 under United States pressure (with considerable support from senior Israeli officers) because of cost overruns that were causing unacceptable strains to the entire Israeli defense program.

As part of the growing military partnership, aircraft from United States Navy aircraft carriers in the Mediterranean used Israeli bombing ranges in the Negev; Israel loaned the United States older Kfir fighters with characteristics similar to the Soviet MiG-21 to use for combat training; antiterrorist teams from the two countries trained together; and joint submarine exercises were held. Israel also participated in advanced weapons research programs. In 1986 the United States granted Israel the right, along with Britain and West Germany, to compete for subcontracts for the Strategic Defense Initiative. In 1988 the United States announced that it would provide Israel US$120 million to continue research on the Hetz antiballistic missile system. Purchases of Israeli products by the United States Department of Defense (including bridge-laying equipment, mine-laying and mine-clearing systems, and electronic and communications items) amounted to more than US$200 million in 1986.

Israel benefited more than any other country from United States military assistance, at a level of approximately US$1.8 billion annually in the mid- and late 1980s. Only Egypt (US$1.3 billion in 1988) approached this sum. Military aid to Israel, which had been in the form of both grant aid and military sales on concessional credit terms, changed to an all-grant form beginning in United States fiscal year (FY) 1985 (see table 15, Appendix A). The US$1.2 billion provided each year in economic aid enabled Israel to service the foreign debt incurred by past purchases of military matériel. United States assistance accounted for more than one-third of all Israeli defense spending during this period. Nevertheless, in terms of purchasing power, the level of direct military aid was less than the US$1 billion received in 1977.

In spite of the intimate degree of cooperation in the military sphere, discord occasionally arose over the purposes to which United States equipment had been applied. Under the terms of military assistance agreements, Israel could use the equipment only for purposes of internal security, for legitimate self-defense, or to participate in regional defense, or in UN collective security measures. Israel also agreed not to undertake aggression against any other state. The United States condemned the Israeli air strike against Iraq's Osiraq (acronym for Osiris-Iraq) nuclear research installation near Baghdad in 1981 using F-16 aircraft escorted by F-15s. A pending shipment of F-16s was suspended for a time and the suspension was extended when the Israeli air force bombed PLO targets in West Beirut, resulting in significant civilian casualties. The United States lifted the ban after a few months without a formal finding as to whether Israel had violated its commitments by using United States-supplied aircraft on the two raids.

The United States objected to Israel's use of cluster bombs during Operation Litani, its incursion into Lebanon in 1978. A commitment was obtained from Israel that it would restrict the use of cluster bombs that cast lethal projectiles over a wide area to "hard" targets. In 1982, however, the United States held up further deliveries of the bombs when it learned that they were being used in the invasion of Lebanon. In 1986, with the embargo still in force, the United States launched an investigation into the unapproved sale of equipment by private American firms enabling Israel to manufacture the bombs.

In addition to cooperation on matériel, cooperation between the two countries on intelligence matters had begun in the early 1960s, when Israel furnished the United States with captured Soviet missiles, antitank weapons, and artillery shells for evaluation and testing. The United States shared reconnaissance satellite data with Israel, although after Israel apparently used satellite photographs to aid in targeting the Osiraq reactor, the data reportedly were limited to information useful only for defensive purposes relating to Arab military deployments on or near Israel's borders. In September 1988, however, Israel announced that it had launched its own scientific satellite which was to be followed by other satellites in orbits characteristic of observation satellites.

Data as of December 1988



BackgroundFollowing World War II, the British withdrew from their mandate of Palestine, and the UN partitioned the area into Arab and Jewish states, an arrangement rejected by the Arabs. Subsequently, the Israelis defeated the Arabs in a series of wars without ending the deep tensions between the two sides. The territories Israel occupied since the 1967 war are not included in the Israel country profile, unless otherwise noted. On 25 April 1982, Israel withdrew from the Sinai pursuant to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. In keeping with the framework established at the Madrid Conference in October 1991, bilateral negotiations were conducted between Israel and Palestinian representatives and Syria to achieve a permanent settlement. Israel and Palestinian officials signed on 13 September 1993 a Declaration of Principles (also known as the "Oslo Accords") guiding an interim period of Palestinian self-rule. Outstanding territorial and other disputes with Jordan were resolved in the 26 October 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace. In addition, on 25 May 2000, Israel withdrew unilaterally from southern Lebanon, which it had occupied since 1982. In April 2003, US President BUSH, working in conjunction with the EU, UN, and Russia - the "Quartet" - took the lead in laying out a roadmap to a final settlement of the conflict by 2005, based on reciprocal steps by the two parties leading to two states, Israel and a democratic Palestine. However, progress toward a permanent status agreement was undermined by Israeli-Palestinian violence between September 2003 and February 2005. In the summer of 2005, Israel unilaterally disengaged from the Gaza Strip, evacuating settlers and its military while retaining control over most points of entry into the Gaza Strip. The election of HAMAS to head the Palestinian Legislative Council froze relations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority (PA). Ehud OLMERT became prime minister in March 2006 and presided over a 34-day conflict with Hizballah in Lebanon in June-August 2006 and a 23-day conflict with Hamas in the Gaza Strip during December 2008 and January 2009. OLMERT, who in June 2007 resumed talks with PA President Mahmoud ABBAS, resigned in September 2008. Prime Minister Binyamin NETANYAHU formed a coalition in March 2009 following a February 2009 general election. Peace talks are currently stalled.
LocationMiddle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon
Area(sq km)total: 22,072 sq km
land: 21,642 sq km
water: 430 sq km
Geographic coordinates31 30 N, 34 45 E
Land boundaries(km)total: 1,017 km
border countries: Egypt 266 km, Gaza Strip 51 km, Jordan 238 km, Lebanon 79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307 km

Coastline(km)273 km

Climatetemperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas

Elevation extremes(m)lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m
highest point: Har Meron 1,208 m
Natural resourcestimber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand
Land use(%)arable land: 15.45%
permanent crops: 3.88%
other: 80.67% (2005)

Irrigated land(sq km)1,940 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources(cu km)1.7 cu km (2001)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 2.05 cu km/yr (31%/7%/62%)
per capita: 305 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazardssandstorms may occur during spring and summer; droughts; periodic earthquakes
Environment - current issueslimited arable land and natural fresh water resources pose serious constraints; desertification; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - notethere are about 340 Israeli civilian sites - including 100 small outpost communities in the West Bank - as well as 42 sites in the Golan Heights, 0 in the Gaza Strip, and 29 in East Jerusalem (July 2008 est.); Lake Tiberias (Sea of Galilee) is an important freshwater source
Population7,233,701
note: includes about 187,000 Israeli settlers in the West Bank, about 20,000 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, and fewer than 177,000 in East Jerusalem (July 2009 est.)
Age structure(%)0-14 years: 27.9% (male 1,031,629/female 984,230)
15-64 years: 62.3% (male 2,283,034/female 2,221,301)
65 years and over: 9.9% (male 311,218/female 402,289) (2009 est.)
Median age(years)total: 29.1 years
male: 28.4 years
female: 29.8 years (2009 est.)
Population growth rate(%)1.671% (2009 est.)
Birth rate(births/1,000 population)19.77 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Death rate(deaths/1,000 population)5.43 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

Net migration rate(migrant(s)/1,000 population)2.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Urbanization(%)urban population: 92% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 1.7% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio(male(s)/female)at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Infant mortality rate(deaths/1,000 live births)total: 4.22 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.39 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth(years)total population: 80.73 years
male: 78.62 years
female: 82.95 years (2009 est.)

Total fertility rate(children born/woman)2.75 children born/woman (2009 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Israeli(s)
adjective: Israeli
Ethnic groups(%)Jewish 76.4% (of which Israel-born 67.1%, Europe/America-born 22.6%, Africa-born 5.9%, Asia-born 4.2%), non-Jewish 23.6% (mostly Arab) (2004)

Religions(%)Jewish 76.4%, Muslim 16%, Arab Christians 1.7%, other Christian 0.4%, Druze 1.6%, unspecified 3.9% (2004)
Languages(%)Hebrew (official), Arabic used officially for Arab minority, English most commonly used foreign language

Country nameconventional long form: State of Israel
conventional short form: Israel
local long form: Medinat Yisra'el
local short form: Yisra'el
Government typeparliamentary democracy
Capitalname: Jerusalem
geographic coordinates: 31 46 N, 35 14 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday in March; ends the Sunday between the holidays of Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur
note: Israel proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital in 1950, but the US, like nearly all other countries, maintains its Embassy in Tel Aviv
Administrative divisions6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz); Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv
Constitutionno formal constitution; some of the functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the Basic Laws of the parliament (Knesset), and the Israeli citizenship law; note - since May 2003 the Constitution, Law, and Justice Committee of the Knesset has been working on a draft constitution

Legal systemmixture of English common law, British Mandate regulations, and, in personal matters, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim legal systems; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Shimon PERES (since 15 July 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Binyamin NETANYAHU (since 31 March 2009)
cabinet: Cabinet selected by prime minister and approved by the Knesset
elections: president is largely a ceremonial role and is elected by the Knesset for a seven-year term (one-term limit); election last held 13 June 2007 (next to be held in 2014 but can be called earlier); following legislative elections, the president assigns a Knesset member - traditionally the leader of the largest party - the task of forming a governing coalition
election results: Shimon PERES elected president; number of votes in first round - Shimon PERES 58, Reuven RIVLIN 37, Colette AVITAL 21; PERES elected president in second round with 86 votes (unopposed)

Legislative branchunicameral Knesset (120 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 10 February 2009 (next scheduled election to be held in 2013)
election results: percent of vote by party - Kadima 23.2%, Likud-Ahi 22.3%, YB 12.1%, Labor 10.2%, SHAS 8.8%, United Torah Judaism 4.5%, United Arab List 3.5%, NU 3.4%, Hadash 3.4%, The Jewish Home 3%, The New Movement-Meretz 3%, Balad 2.6%; seats by party - Kadima 28, Likud-Ahi 27, YB 15, Labor 13, SHAS 11, United Torah Judaism 5, United Arab List 4, NU 4, HADASH 4, The Jewish Home 3, The New Movement-Meretz 3, Balad 3

Judicial branchSupreme Court (justices appointed by Judicial Selection Committee - made up of all three branches of the government; mandatory retirement age is 70)

Political pressure groups and leadersB'Tselem [Jessica MONTELL, Executive Director] monitors human rights abuses; Peace Now [Yariv OPPENHEIMER, Secretary General] supports territorial concessions in the West Bank and Gaza Strip; YESHA Council of Settlements [Danny DAYAN, Chairman] promotes settler interests and opposes territorial compromise
International organization participationBIS, BSEC (observer), CERN (observer), EBRD, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, OAS (observer), OECD (accession state), OPCW (signatory), OSCE (partner), Paris Club (associate), PCA, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Flag descriptionwhite with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the Magen David (Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag

Economy - overviewIsrael has a technologically advanced market economy with substantial, though diminishing, government participation. It depends on imports of crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Despite limited natural resources, Israel has intensively developed its agricultural and industrial sectors over the past 20 years. Israel imports substantial quantities of grain but is largely self-sufficient in other agricultural products. Cut diamonds, high-technology equipment, and agricultural products (fruits and vegetables) are the leading exports. Israel usually posts sizable trade deficits, which are covered by large transfer payments from abroad and by foreign loans. Roughly half of the government's external debt is owed to the US, its major source of economic and military aid. Israel's GDP, after contracting slightly in 2001 and 2002 due to the Palestinian conflict and troubles in the high-technology sector, has grown by about 5% per year since 2003. The economy grew an estimated 3.9% in 2008, slowed by the global financial crisis. The government's prudent fiscal policy and structural reforms over the past few years have helped to induce strong foreign investment, tax revenues, and private consumption, setting the economy on a solid growth path.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$203.4 billion (2008 est.)
$195.2 billion (2007 est.)
$185.6 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate)$202.1 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate(%)4.2% (2008 est.)
5.2% (2007 est.)
5.3% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$28,600 (2008 est.)
$27,900 (2007 est.)
$27,000 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector(%)agriculture: 2.6%
industry: 32.4%
services: 65% (2008 est.)
Labor force2.957 million (2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation(%)agriculture: 2%
industry: 16%
services: 82% (30 September 2008)
Unemployment rate(%)6.1% (2008 est.)
7.3% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line(%)21.60%
note: Israel's poverty line is $7.30 per person per day (2005)
Household income or consumption by percentage share(%)lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 24.2% (2007)
Distribution of family income - Gini index38.6 (2005)
35.5 (2001)
Investment (gross fixed)(% of GDP)18.1% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $59.98 billion
expenditures: $64.21 billion (2008 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)(%)4.6% (2008 est.)
0.5% (2007 est.)

Stock of money$NA (31 December 2008)
$15.36 billion (31 December 2006)
Stock of quasi money$NA (31 December 2008)
$154.3 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of domestic credit$NA (31 December 2008)
$113.4 billion (31 December 2006)
Market value of publicly traded shares$134.5 billion (31 December 2008)
$236.4 billion (31 December 2007)
$173.3 billion (31 December 2006)
Economic aid - recipient$240 million from US (FY06)

Public debt(% of GDP)76.8% of GDP (2008 est.)
104.5% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - productscitrus, vegetables, cotton; beef, poultry, dairy products
Industrieshigh-technology projects (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics, fiber optics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, construction, metals products, chemical products, plastics, diamond cutting, textiles, footwear

Industrial production growth rate(%)3.5% (2008 est.)

Current account balance$2.213 billion (2008 est.)
$4.185 billion (2007 est.)
Exports$57.16 billion (2008 est.)
$50.07 billion (2007 est.)

Exports - commodities(%)machinery and equipment, software, cut diamonds, agricultural products, chemicals, textiles and apparel
Exports - partners(%)US 32.5%, Belgium 7.5%, Hong Kong 6.7% (2008)
Imports$64.4 billion (2008 est.)
$55.93 billion (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities(%)raw materials, military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds, fuels, grain, consumer goods
Imports - partners(%)US 12.3%, Belgium 6.5%, China 6.5%, Switzerland 6.1%, Germany 6% (2008)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$42.51 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$28.52 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external$86.08 billion (31 December 2008)
$89.58 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$56.93 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$55.7 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$54.55 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$48.47 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Exchange ratesnew Israeli shekels (ILS) per US dollar - 3.56 (2008 est.), 4.14 (2007), 4.4565 (2006), 4.4877 (2005), 4.482 (2004)

Currency (code)new Israeli shekel (ILS); note - NIS is the currency abbreviation; ILS is the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) code for the NIS

Telephones - main lines in use2.9 million (2008)
Telephones - mobile cellular8.902 million (2008)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: most highly developed system in the Middle East although not the largest
domestic: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital; four privately-owned mobile-cellular service providers with countrywide coverage
international: country code - 972; submarine cables provide links to Europe, Cyprus, and parts of the Middle East; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2008)
Internet country code.il
Internet users2.106 million (2008)
Airports47 (2009)
Pipelines(km)gas 176 km; oil 442 km; refined products 261 km (2008)
Roadways(km)total: 17,870 km
paved: 17,870 km (includes 146 km of expressways) (2007)

Ports and terminalsAshdod, Elat (Eilat), Hadera, Haifa
Military branchesIsrael Defense Forces (IDF), Israel Naval Forces (INF), Israel Air Force (IAF) (2009)
Military service age and obligation(years of age)18 years of age for compulsory (Jews, Druzes) and voluntary (Christians, Muslims, Circassians) military service; both sexes are obligated to military service; conscript service obligation - 36 months for enlisted men, 21 months for enlisted women, 48 months for officers; reserve obligation to age 41-51 (men), 24 (women) (2008)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 1,717,362
females age 16-49: 1,636,574 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 1,474,966
females age 16-49: 1,404,712 (2009 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 61,223
female: 58,219 (2009 est.)
Military expenditures(% of GDP)7.3% of GDP (2006)
Disputes - internationalWest Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Israel continues construction of a "seam line" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the West Bank; Israel withdrew its settlers and military from the Gaza Strip and from four settlements in the West Bank in August 2005; Golan Heights is Israeli-occupied (Lebanon claims the Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights); since 1948, about 350 peacekeepers from the UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) headquartered in Jerusalem monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating, and assist other UN personnel in the region

Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 150,000-420,000 (Arab villagers displaced from homes in northern Israel) (2007)
Electricity - production(kWh)50.41 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - production by source(%)fossil fuel: 99.9%
hydro: 0.1%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption(kWh)46.15 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - exports(kWh)2.081 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports(kWh)0 kWh (2008 est.)
Oil - production(bbl/day)5,246 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - consumption(bbl/day)235,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - exports(bbl/day)69,580 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - imports(bbl/day)318,900 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - proved reserves(bbl)1.94 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
Natural gas - production(cu m)1.19 billion cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - consumption(cu m)1.19 billion cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - exports(cu m)0 cu m (2008)
Natural gas - proved reserves(cu m)30.44 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate(%)0.1% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS5,100 (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsfewer than 200 (2007 est.)
Literacy(%)definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.1%
male: 98.5%
female: 95.9% (2004 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)(years)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2006)
Education expenditures(% of GDP)6.9% of GDP (2004)








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