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Indonesia-Local Government

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Indonesia Index

Government administration is processed through descending levels of administrative subunits. Indonesia is made up of twenty-seven provincial-level units. In 1992 there actually were only twenty-four provinces (propinsi), two special regions (daerah istimewa)--Aceh and Yogyakarta--and a special capital city region (daerah khusus ibukota)--Jakarta. The provinces in turn were subdivided into districts (kabupaten), and below that into subdistricts (kecamatan). There were forty municipalities or city governments (kotamadya) that were at the same administrative level as a kabupaten. At the lowest tier of the administrative hierarchy was the village (desa). According to 1991 statistics, Indonesia had 241 districts, 3,625 subdistricts, 56 cities, and 66,979 villages.

Since independence the nation has been centrally governed from Jakarta in a system in which the lines of authority, budget, and personnel appointment run outward and downward. Regional and local governments enjoy little autonomy. Their role is largely administrative: implementing policies, rules, and regulations. Regional officialdom is an extension of the Jakarta bureaucracy. The political goal is to maintain the command framework of the unitary state, even at the cost of developmental efficiency. Governments below the national level, therefore, serve essentially as subordinate administrative units through which the functional activities of Jakarta-based departments and agencies reach out into the country.

In the early 1990s, there was neither real power sharing nor upward political communication through representative feedback. Real feedback occurred through bureaucratic channels or informal lines of communication. Elected people's regional representative councils (DPRD) at the provincial and district levels had been restored in 1966, after operating as appointive bodies during the period of Guided Democracy. However, the DPRDs' participation in the early 1990s governing was extremely circumscribed because the councils lacked control over the use of resources and official appointments. Even though 1974 legislation gave provincial DPRDs some voice in selecting their governors--DPRDs could recommend appointments from a list of potential candidates submitted by the minister of home affairs--provincial governors were still appointed by the president. District heads were designated by the Department of Home Affairs.

The structure of provincial-level and local government in Indonesia is best understood in terms of the overriding goals of national political integration and political stability. At the governmental level, integration means control by the central government, a policy that was in part conditioned by historical experience. At independence Indonesia consisted of the shortlived federal RUSI (1949-50). The RUSI was viewed as a Dutch plot to deny authority over the entire country to the triumphant Indonesian nationalists. Regional rebellions in the late 1950s confirmed the national government's view that Indonesia's cultural and ethnic diversity required tight central government control to maintain the integrity of the state. Political stability was equated with centralization and instability with decentralization. Civil control was maintained through a hierarchy of the army's territorial commands, each level of which parallelled a political subdivision--from the highest regional command levels down to noncommissioned officers stationed in the desa for "village guidance." Lateral coordination of civilian administration, police, justice, and military affairs was provided at each provincial, district, and subdistrict level by a Regional Security Council (Muspida). The local Muspida was chaired by the regional army commander and did not include the speaker of the local DPRD (see The Armed Forces in the National Life , ch. 5).

Added to the political requirement for centralization in the early 1990s was the economic reality of the unequal endowment of natural resources in the archipelago and the mismatch of population density to resources. The least populated parts of the country were the richest in primary resources. A basic task of the national government was to ensure that the wealth produced by resource exploitation be fairly shared by all Indonesians. This goal meant that, in addition to Jakarta's political control of the national administrative system, the central government also exercised control over local revenues and finances. Thus, the absence of an independent funding base limited autonomy for provincial and local governments.

About 80 percent of total public expenditure in the provinces was disbursed from the national budget controlled by departments and agencies headquartered in Jakarta. Of the 20 percent administered by the provinces, about half came from Inpres (Presidential Instruction) grants for infrastructure and other developmental purposes. Beginning in 1969, the Inpres grant programs at provincial, district, and village levels channeled about 20 percent of the development budget to small-scale projects for local development, with an emphasis on roads, irrigation, schools, and public health. Only about 10 percent of regional government revenue was derived from local taxes and fees.

Whereas once the central government's transfer of wealth from resource-rich provinces to people-rich provinces had been a source of political irritation for the better-endowed regions, by Repelita V (FY 1989-93), the lag in development investment beyond the Java-Sumatra western core was the most troubling. Suharto's 1992 New Year's message to the nation explicitly addressed this problem: "We are also aware," he said, "of the fact that there is a wide gap in the progress achieved by each region in our country, especially between the western and eastern part of the country." In looking to future policy, he added that there would be stepped-up efforts to provide autonomy and decentralization. Such steps, however, would require strengthening the capacity of subnational units financially and administratively, as well as strengthening local participation in the setting of national goals and policies. To some government leaders in the early 1990s, making concessions to economic and cultural claims for autonomy would endanger national unity. Conflicting interests of politics and administration presented special problems in the Special Region of Aceh and Irian Jaya and Timor Timur provinces.

Data as of November 1992

BackgroundThe Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. Indonesia's first free parliamentary election after decades of repressive rule took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third-largest democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and home to the world's largest Muslim population. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, holding the military and police accountable for past human rights violations, addressing climate change, and controlling avian influenza. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face a low intensity separatist movement in Papua.
LocationSoutheastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Area(sq km)total: 1,904,569 sq km
land: 1,811,569 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km
Geographic coordinates5 00 S, 120 00 E
Land boundaries(km)total: 2,830 km
border countries: Timor-Leste 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline(km)54,716 km

Climatetropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Elevation extremes(m)lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use(%)arable land: 11.03%
permanent crops: 7.04%
other: 81.93% (2005)

Irrigated land(sq km)45,000 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources(cu km)2,838 cu km (1999)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 82.78 cu km/yr (8%/1%/91%)
per capita: 372 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazardsoccasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - notearchipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean
Population240,271,522 (July 2009 est.)
Age structure(%)0-14 years: 28.1% (male 34,337,341/female 33,162,207)
15-64 years: 66% (male 79,549,569/female 78,918,321)
65 years and over: 6% (male 6,335,208/female 7,968,876) (2009 est.)
Median age(years)total: 27.6 years
male: 27.1 years
female: 28.1 years (2009 est.)
Population growth rate(%)1.136% (2009 est.)
Birth rate(births/1,000 population)18.84 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Death rate(deaths/1,000 population)6.25 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

Net migration rate(migrant(s)/1,000 population)-1.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Urbanization(%)urban population: 52% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 3.3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio(male(s)/female)at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Infant mortality rate(deaths/1,000 live births)total: 29.97 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 34.93 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 24.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth(years)total population: 70.76 years
male: 68.26 years
female: 73.38 years (2009 est.)

Total fertility rate(children born/woman)2.31 children born/woman (2009 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
Ethnic groups(%)Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census)

Religions(%)Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)
Languages(%)Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese)

Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies
Government typerepublic
Capitalname: Jakarta
geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
note: Indonesia is divided into three time zones
Administrative divisions30 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Kepulauan Riau, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, Papua Barat, Riau, Sulawesi Barat, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*
note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, the 465 regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
ConstitutionAugust 1945; abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959; series of amendments concluded in 2002

Legal systembased on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures and election codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Executive branchchief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president are elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry; last held on 8 July 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president; percent of vote - Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO 60.8%, MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri 26.8%, Jusuf KALLA 12.4%

Legislative branchPeople's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) is the upper house, consists of members of DPR and DPD, has role in inaugurating and impeaching the president and in amending the constitution, does not formulate national policy; House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (560 seats, members elected to serve five-year terms), formulates and passes legislation at the national level; House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions
elections: last held 9 April 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: percent of vote by party - PD 20.9%, GOLKAR 14.5%, PDI-P 14.0%, PKS 7.9%, PAN 6.0%, PPP 5.3%, PKB 4.9%, GERINDRA 4.5%, HANURA 3.8%, others 18.2%; seats by party - PD 148, GOLKAR 107, PDI-P 94, PKS 57, PAN 46, PPP 37, PKB 28, GERINDRA 26, HANURA 17
note: 29 other parties received less than 2.5% of the vote so did not obtain any seats; because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties

Judicial branchSupreme Court or Mahkamah Agung is the final court of appeal but does not have the power of judicial review (justices are appointed by the president from a list of candidates selected by the legislature); in March 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility for the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights; Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (invested by the president on 16 August 2003) has the power of judicial review, jurisdiction over the results of a general election, and reviews actions to dismiss a president from office; Labor Court under supervision of Supreme Court began functioning in January 2006; the Anti-Corruption Court has jurisdiction over corruption cases brought by the independent Corruption Eradication Commission

Political pressure groups and leadersCommission for the "Disappeared" and Victims of Violence or KontraS; Indonesia Corruption Watch or ICW; Indonesian Forum for the Environment or WALHI; Islamic Defenders Front or FPI; People's Democracy Fortress or Bendera
Flag descriptiontwo equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

Economy - overviewIndonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has made significant economic advances under the administration of President YUDHOYONO but faces challenges stemming from the global financial crisis and world economic downturn. Indonesia's debt-to-GDP ratio in recent years has declined steadily because of increasingly robust GDP growth and sound fiscal stewardship. The government has introduced significant reforms in the financial sector, including in the areas of tax and customs, the use of Treasury bills, and capital market supervision. Indonesia's investment law, passed in March 2007, seeks to address some of the concerns of foreign and domestic investors. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. The non-bank financial sector, including pension funds and insurance, remains weak. Despite efforts to broaden and deepen capital markets, they remain underdeveloped. Economic difficulties in early 2008 centered on high global food and oil prices and their impact on Indonesia's poor and on the budget. The onset of the global financial crisis dampened inflationary pressures, but increased risk aversion for emerging market assets resulted in large losses in the stock market, significant depreciation of the rupiah, and a difficult environment for bond issuance. As global demand has slowed and prices for Indonesia's commodity exports have fallen, Indonesia faces the prospect of growth significantly below the 6-plus percent recorded in 2007 and 2008.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$916.7 billion (2008 est.)
$864 billion (2007 est.)
$812.8 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate)$511.8 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate(%)6.1% (2008 est.)
6.3% (2007 est.)
5.5% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$3,900 (2008 est.)
$3,700 (2007 est.)
$3,500 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector(%)agriculture: 14.4%
industry: 48.1%
services: 37.5% (2008 est.)
Labor force112 million (2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation(%)agriculture: 42.1%
industry: 18.6%
services: 39.3% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate(%)8.4% (2008 est.)
9.1% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line(%)17.8% (2006)
Household income or consumption by percentage share(%)lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 32.3% (2006)
Distribution of family income - Gini index39.4 (2005)
37 (2001)
Investment (gross fixed)(% of GDP)23.6% of GDP (2008)
Budgetrevenues: $92.62 billion
expenditures: $98.88 billion (2008 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)(%)9.9% (2008 est.)
6.3% (2007 est.)

Stock of money$41.71 billion (31 December 2008)
$47.78 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of quasi money$131.5 billion (31 December 2008)
$127 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of domestic credit$166.2 billion (31 December 2008)
$170.2 billion (31 December 2007)
Market value of publicly traded shares$98.76 billion (31 December 2008)
$211.7 billion (31 December 2007)
$138.9 billion (31 December 2006)
Economic aid - recipientODA, $2.524 billion (2006 est.)
note: Indonesia ended 2006 with $67 billion in official foreign debt (about 25% of GDP), with Japan ($25 billion), the World Bank ($8.5 billion) and the Asian Development Bank ($8.4 billion) as the largest creditors; about $6 billion in grant assistance was pledged to rebuild Aceh after the December 2004 tsunami; President YUDHOYONO disbanded the Consultative Group on Indonesia (CGI) donor forum in January 2007

Public debt(% of GDP)29.3% of GDP (2008 est.)
56.2% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - productsrice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs
Industriespetroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism

Industrial production growth rate(%)3.7% (2008 est.)

Current account balance$604 million (2008 est.)
$10.49 billion (2007 est.)
Exports$139.3 billion (2008 est.)
$118 billion (2007 est.)

Exports - commodities(%)oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
Exports - partners(%)Japan 20.2%, US 9.5%, Singapore 9.4%, China 8.5%, South Korea 6.7%, India 5.2%, Malaysia 4.7% (2008)
Imports$116 billion (2008 est.)
$85.26 billion (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities(%)machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners(%)Singapore 16.9%, China 11.8%, Japan 11.7%, Malaysia 6.9%, US 6.1%, South Korea 5.4%, Thailand 4.9% (2008)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$51.64 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$56.92 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external$155.1 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$141.2 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$67.3 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$58.96 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$6.656 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$9.225 billion (2006 est.)
Exchange ratesIndonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar - 9,698.9 (2008), 9,143 (2007), 9,159.3 (2006), 9,704.7 (2005), 8,938.9 (2004)

Currency (code)Indonesian rupiah (IDR)

Telephones - main lines in use30.378 million (2008)
Telephones - mobile cellular140.578 million (2008)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: domestic service fair, international service good
domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system; coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile cellular subscribership growing rapidly
international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)
Internet country code.id
Internet users30 million (2008)
Airports683 (2009)
Pipelines(km)condensate 735 km; condensate/gas 73 km; gas 5,797 km; oil 5,721 km; oil/gas/water 12 km; refined products 1,370 km; water 44 km (2008)
Roadways(km)total: 391,009 km
paved: 216,714 km
unpaved: 174,295 km (2005)

Ports and terminalsBanjarmasin, Belawan, Ciwandan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok
Military branchesIndonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL); includes marines, naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2009)
Military service age and obligation(years of age)18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2008)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 63,800,825
females age 16-49: 61,729,717 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 52,997,922
females age 16-49: 52,503,046 (2009 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 2,197,323
female: 2,126,412 (2009 est.)
Military expenditures(% of GDP)3% of GDP (2005 est.)
Disputes - internationalIndonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; Timor-Leste-Indonesia Boundary Committee has resolved all but a small portion of the land boundary, but discussions on maritime boundaries are stalemated over sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Pulau Batek/Fatu Sinai in the north and alignment with Australian claims in the south; many refugees from Timor-Leste who left in 2003 still reside in Indonesia and refuse repatriation; a 1997 treaty between Indonesia and Australia settled some parts of their maritime boundary but outstanding issues remain; ICJ's award of Sipadan and Ligitan islands to Malaysia in 2002 left the sovereignty of Unarang rock and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea in dispute; the ICJ decision has prompted Indonesia to assert claims to and to establish a presence on its smaller outer islands; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches

Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 200,000-350,000 (government offensives against rebels in Aceh; most IDPs in Aceh, Central Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi Provinces, and Maluku) (2007)
Electricity - production(kWh)134.4 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - production by source(%)fossil fuel: 86.9%
hydro: 10.5%
nuclear: 0%
other: 2.6% (2001)
Electricity - consumption(kWh)119.3 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - exports(kWh)0 kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports(kWh)0 kWh (2008 est.)
Oil - production(bbl/day)1.051 million bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - consumption(bbl/day)1.564 million bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - exports(bbl/day)85,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - imports(bbl/day)671,000 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - proved reserves(bbl)3.99 billion bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
Natural gas - production(cu m)70 billion cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - consumption(cu m)36.5 billion cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - exports(cu m)33.5 billion cu m (2008)
Natural gas - proved reserves(cu m)3.001 trillion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate(%)0.2% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS270,000 (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths8,700 (2007 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, dengue fever, and malaria
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
Literacy(%)definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.4%
male: 94%
female: 86.8% (2004 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)(years)total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2005)
Education expenditures(% of GDP)3.6% of GDP (2006)

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